ISSN 0253-2778

CN 34-1054/N

Open AccessOpen Access JUSTC Earth and Space Sciences 13 May 2022

Deployable boom for Mars Orbiter Magnetometer onboard Tianwen-1

Cite this:
https://doi.org/10.52396/JUSTC-2022-0001
More Information
  • Author Bio:

    Manming Chen is currently a doctoral candidate at the University of Science and Technology of China. His research interests focus on the development of magnetometers and magnetic shielding facilities

    Zonghao Pan is currently an engineer at the School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China (USTC). He received his Ph.D. degree in Space Physics from USTC. His research interests mainly focus on the space magnetic field investigation

    Tielong Zhang is Academician of International Academy of Astronautics, and is an expert in space science and planetary physics. He is also the chief designer of MOMAG mission. His research interests include planetary physics, exploration of deep space and development of space-based magnetometers

  • Corresponding author: E-mail: zhpan@ustc.edu.cn; E-mail: tlzhang@ustc.edu.cn
  • Received Date: 05 January 2022
  • Accepted Date: 19 March 2022
  • Available Online: 13 May 2022
  • A more than 3 m-long deployable boom is an essential component of the Mars Orbiter Magnetometer (MOMAG) onboard the orbiter of Tianwen-1. The boom was developed to place fluxgate magnetometer (FGM) sensors away from the satellite to reduce the influence of the satellite magnetic field. It was designed as an articulated spring-driven deployable mechanism for single-shot deployment. Functionality, reliability and system constraints are fully considered in the boom design. Mechanical analyses and proof tests show that the boom has sufficient safety margin to withstand environmental conditions, even in the worst cases. After a long voyage from Earth to Mars, the boom was deployed successfully on May 25, 2021. A full deployment was performed in about 4.6 s, sending the two sensors to distances of 3.19 m and 2.29 m respectively, away from the orbiter. After deployment, the field from the orbiter decreased from 1250 nT to less than 6 nT at the sensor mounted at the tip of the boom. The MOMAG boom provides valuable engineering experience for the development of deployable structures stowed for long periods in cold temperatures in space missions.
    The deployable boom functioned normally and is consistent with the design expectations after long storage from Earth to Mars.
    A more than 3 m-long deployable boom is an essential component of the Mars Orbiter Magnetometer (MOMAG) onboard the orbiter of Tianwen-1. The boom was developed to place fluxgate magnetometer (FGM) sensors away from the satellite to reduce the influence of the satellite magnetic field. It was designed as an articulated spring-driven deployable mechanism for single-shot deployment. Functionality, reliability and system constraints are fully considered in the boom design. Mechanical analyses and proof tests show that the boom has sufficient safety margin to withstand environmental conditions, even in the worst cases. After a long voyage from Earth to Mars, the boom was deployed successfully on May 25, 2021. A full deployment was performed in about 4.6 s, sending the two sensors to distances of 3.19 m and 2.29 m respectively, away from the orbiter. After deployment, the field from the orbiter decreased from 1250 nT to less than 6 nT at the sensor mounted at the tip of the boom. The MOMAG boom provides valuable engineering experience for the development of deployable structures stowed for long periods in cold temperatures in space missions.
    • The deployable boom is an essential component for China’s first near-Mars space magnetic field exploration.
    • The deployable boom was folded and stowed for more than 300 days in space in cold environments before deployment.
    • The boom is accomplished with high reliability, short development and fabrication cycle under system constraints.

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  • [1]
    Ouyang Z Y, Xiao F G. Major scientific issues involved in Mars exploration. Spacecraft Environment Engineering, 2011, 28 (3): 205–217. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-1379.2011.03.001
    [2]
    Li C L, Zhang R Q, Yu D Y, et al. China’s Mars exploration mission and science investigation. Space Science Reviews, 2021, 217: 57. doi: 10.1007/S11214-021-00832-9
    [3]
    Li C L, Liu J J, Geng Y, et al. Scientific objectives and payload configuration of China’s first mars exploration mission. Journal of Deep Space Exploration, 2018, 5 (5): 406–413. doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2095-7777.2018.05.002
    [4]
    Liu K, Hao X J, Li Y R, et al. Mars Orbiter Magnetometer of China’s first mars mission Tianwen-1. Earth Planet Physics, 2020, 4 (4): 384–389. doi: 10.26464/epp2020058
    [5]
    Michaelis H, Motschmann U, Roatsch T, et al. Magnetic fields near Mars: First results. Nature, 1989, 341: 604–607. doi: 10.1038/341604a0
    [6]
    Acuna M H, Connerney J E P, Wasilewski P, et al. Magnetic field and plasma observations at Mars: Initial results of the Mars Global Surveyor Mission. Science, 1998, 279 (5357): 1676–1680. doi: 10.1126/science.279.5357.1676
    [7]
    Acuna M H. Space-based magnetometers. Review of Scientific Instruments, 2002, 73 (11): 3717–3736. doi: 10.1063/1.1510570
    [8]
    Zhang T L, Baumjohann W, Delva M, et al. Magnetic field investigation of the Venus plasma environment: Expected new results from Venus Express. Planetary and Space Science, 2006, 54 (13-14): 1336–1343. doi: 10.1016/j.pss.2006.04.018
    [9]
    Anderson B J, Acuna M H, Lohr D A, et al. The Magnetometer instrument on MESSENGER. Space Science Reviews, 2007, 131: 417–450. doi: 10.1007/s11214-007-9246-7
    [10]
    Connerney J E P, Espley J, Lawton P, et al. The MAVEN magnetic field investigation. Space Science Reviews, 2015, 195: 257–291. doi: 10.1007/s11214-015-0169-4
    [11]
    Connerney J E P, Benn M, Bjarno J B, et al. The Juno Magnetic Field investigation. Space Science Reviews, 2017, 213: 39–138. doi: 10.1007/s11214-017-0334-z
    [12]
    Ness N F, Behannon K W, Lepping R P, et al. Use of two magnetometers for magnetic field measurements on a spacecraft. Journal of Geophysical Research, 1971, 76 (16): 3564–3573. doi: 10.1029/JA076i016p03564
    [13]
    Neubauer F M. Optimization of multimagnetometer systems on a spacecraft. Journal of Geophysical Research, 1975, 80 (22): 3235–3240. doi: 10.1029/JA080i022p03235
    [14]
    Georgescu E, Auster H U, Takada T, et al. Modified gradiometer technique applied to Double Star (TC-1). Advances in Space Research, 2008, 41 (10): 1579–1584. doi: 10.1016/j.asr.2008.01.014
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Catalog

    Figure  1.  A CAD model of deployed MOMAG boom on the Mars Orbiter of Tianwen-1.

    Figure  2.  Mission profile of MOMAG.

    Figure  3.  CAD model of MOMAG boom in folded configuration.

    Figure  4.  Picture of boom limbs for flight model.

    Figure  5.  MOMAG boom deployment process.

    Figure  6.  CAD model of a set of hold-down and release system.

    Figure  7.  Finite element models (FEM) of deployed boom for mechanical analysis.

    Figure  8.  Scheme of boom pointing stability test.

    Figure  9.  Flight model of MOMAG boom with FGM sensors and cables.

    Figure  10.  Picture of function test for hinges after storage in LN for one year.

    Figure  11.  Function test for hold-down and release systems after long-term storage. (a) Picture of hold-down and release systems ready for function test in the simulated environment; (b) Picture of IEDs and titanium rods after function test.

    Figure  12.  Picture of IED transections after function test.

    Figure  13.  Margin verification test of hinges with cables of three times.

    Figure  14.  Boom deployment test for flight model.

    Figure  15.  Environmental tests for the boom. (a) and (b) are pictures of boom taken during vibration test in horizontal and vertical directions respectively. (c) and (d) are pictures taken during thermal cycle test and thermal vacuum test respectively.

    Figure  16.  Total magnetic field observed by both FGM sensors during boom deployment. Time is UTC.

    [1]
    Ouyang Z Y, Xiao F G. Major scientific issues involved in Mars exploration. Spacecraft Environment Engineering, 2011, 28 (3): 205–217. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-1379.2011.03.001
    [2]
    Li C L, Zhang R Q, Yu D Y, et al. China’s Mars exploration mission and science investigation. Space Science Reviews, 2021, 217: 57. doi: 10.1007/S11214-021-00832-9
    [3]
    Li C L, Liu J J, Geng Y, et al. Scientific objectives and payload configuration of China’s first mars exploration mission. Journal of Deep Space Exploration, 2018, 5 (5): 406–413. doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2095-7777.2018.05.002
    [4]
    Liu K, Hao X J, Li Y R, et al. Mars Orbiter Magnetometer of China’s first mars mission Tianwen-1. Earth Planet Physics, 2020, 4 (4): 384–389. doi: 10.26464/epp2020058
    [5]
    Michaelis H, Motschmann U, Roatsch T, et al. Magnetic fields near Mars: First results. Nature, 1989, 341: 604–607. doi: 10.1038/341604a0
    [6]
    Acuna M H, Connerney J E P, Wasilewski P, et al. Magnetic field and plasma observations at Mars: Initial results of the Mars Global Surveyor Mission. Science, 1998, 279 (5357): 1676–1680. doi: 10.1126/science.279.5357.1676
    [7]
    Acuna M H. Space-based magnetometers. Review of Scientific Instruments, 2002, 73 (11): 3717–3736. doi: 10.1063/1.1510570
    [8]
    Zhang T L, Baumjohann W, Delva M, et al. Magnetic field investigation of the Venus plasma environment: Expected new results from Venus Express. Planetary and Space Science, 2006, 54 (13-14): 1336–1343. doi: 10.1016/j.pss.2006.04.018
    [9]
    Anderson B J, Acuna M H, Lohr D A, et al. The Magnetometer instrument on MESSENGER. Space Science Reviews, 2007, 131: 417–450. doi: 10.1007/s11214-007-9246-7
    [10]
    Connerney J E P, Espley J, Lawton P, et al. The MAVEN magnetic field investigation. Space Science Reviews, 2015, 195: 257–291. doi: 10.1007/s11214-015-0169-4
    [11]
    Connerney J E P, Benn M, Bjarno J B, et al. The Juno Magnetic Field investigation. Space Science Reviews, 2017, 213: 39–138. doi: 10.1007/s11214-017-0334-z
    [12]
    Ness N F, Behannon K W, Lepping R P, et al. Use of two magnetometers for magnetic field measurements on a spacecraft. Journal of Geophysical Research, 1971, 76 (16): 3564–3573. doi: 10.1029/JA076i016p03564
    [13]
    Neubauer F M. Optimization of multimagnetometer systems on a spacecraft. Journal of Geophysical Research, 1975, 80 (22): 3235–3240. doi: 10.1029/JA080i022p03235
    [14]
    Georgescu E, Auster H U, Takada T, et al. Modified gradiometer technique applied to Double Star (TC-1). Advances in Space Research, 2008, 41 (10): 1579–1584. doi: 10.1016/j.asr.2008.01.014

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