ISSN 0253-2778

CN 34-1054/N

Open AccessOpen Access JUSTC Original Paper

Experimental investigation on the effect of dilution on the liftoff and blowout characteristics of jet diffusion flame

Cite this:
https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.0253-2778.2018.03.009
  • Received Date: 20 March 2017
  • Rev Recd Date: 27 May 2017
  • Publish Date: 31 March 2018
  • On the background of combustion utilization of low calorific value gas fuel, methane or propane diluted by N2 or CO2 and nozzles of 2mm or 3mm inner diameter are set as multiple experimental variables. The liftoff and blowout velocities of jet diffusion flame varying with the diluent concentration were experimentally investigated. With the increase of the diluent concentration, the liftoff velocities slowly decline almost linearly, while the blowout velocities quickly decrease nearly exponentially. The analysis shows that the tendencies may be attributed to the decreases in the stoichiometric laminar burning velocity, the original fuel mass fraction and heat release. Suggestions on the design of burner utilizing low calorific value gas fuel are proposed. In addition, exceeding the critical diluent concentration, the attached flame is directly quenched instead of being a stable lifted flame with the increase of the jet velocity. According to the Reynolds numbers of methane and propane at each critical diluent concentration, it can be inferred that the two critical diluent concentrations of methane and propane are controlled by different mechanisms.
    On the background of combustion utilization of low calorific value gas fuel, methane or propane diluted by N2 or CO2 and nozzles of 2mm or 3mm inner diameter are set as multiple experimental variables. The liftoff and blowout velocities of jet diffusion flame varying with the diluent concentration were experimentally investigated. With the increase of the diluent concentration, the liftoff velocities slowly decline almost linearly, while the blowout velocities quickly decrease nearly exponentially. The analysis shows that the tendencies may be attributed to the decreases in the stoichiometric laminar burning velocity, the original fuel mass fraction and heat release. Suggestions on the design of burner utilizing low calorific value gas fuel are proposed. In addition, exceeding the critical diluent concentration, the attached flame is directly quenched instead of being a stable lifted flame with the increase of the jet velocity. According to the Reynolds numbers of methane and propane at each critical diluent concentration, it can be inferred that the two critical diluent concentrations of methane and propane are controlled by different mechanisms.
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  • [1]
    LYONS K M. Toward an understanding of the stabilization mechanisms of lifted turbulent jet flames: Experiments[J]. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 2007,33(2):211-231.
    [2]
    LAWN C J. Lifted flames on fuel jets in co-flowing air[J]. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 2009,35(1):1-30.
    [3]
    LEE B J, CHUNG S H. Stabilization of lifted tribrachial flames in a laminar nonpremixed jet[J]. Combustion and Flame, 1997,109(1/2):163-172.
    [4]
    XUE Y, JU Y. Studies on the liftoff properties of dimethyl ether jet diffusion flames[J]. Combustion Science and Technology, 2006,178(12):2219-2247.
    [5]
    LEUNG T, WIERZBA I. The effect of co-flow stream velocity on turbulent non-premixed jet flame stability[J]. Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 2009,32(2):1671-1678.
    [6]
    CHUNG S H. Stabilization, propagation and instability of tribrachial triple flames[J]. Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 2007,31(1):877-892.
    [7]
    KALGHATGI G T. Blow-out stability of gaseous jet diffusion flames. Part I: In still air[J]. Combustion Science and Technology, 1981, 26(5/6):233-239.
    [8]
    BROADWELL J E, DAHM W J, MUNGAL M G. Blowout of turbulent diffusion flames[J]. Symposium (International) on Combustion, 1985, 20(1):303-310.
    [9]
    CHAO Y, WU C, LEE K, et al. Effects of dilution on blowout limits of turbulent jet flames[J]. Combustion Science and Technology, 2004,176(10):1735-1753.
    [10]
    GOLLAHALLI S R, SAVA 塁 , HUANG R F, et al. Structure of attached and lifted gas jet flames in hysteresis region[J]. Symposium (International) on Combustion, 1988,21(1): 1463-1471.
    [11]
    WILSON D A, LYONS K M. Effects of dilution and co-flow on the stability of lifted non-premixed biogas-like flames[J]. Fuel, 2008,87(3):405-413.
    [12]
    VANQUICKENBORNE L, VAN TIGGELEN A. The stabilization mechanism of lifted diffusion flames[J]. Combustion and Flame, 1966,10(1):59-69.
    [13]
    GAUTAM T K. Lift-off heights and visible lengths of vertical turbulent jet diffusion flames in still air[J]. Combustion Science and Technology, 1984,41(1/2):17-29.
    [14]
    POINSOT T, VEYNANTE D. Theoretical and Numerical Combustion[M]. RT Edwards Incorporated, 2005.
    [15]
    KEE R J, RUPLEY F M, MILLER J A, et al. CHEMKIN Release 4.1[M]. San Diego, CA: Reaction Design, 2006.
    [16]
    曾丹苓, 敖越, 朱克雄. 工程热力学[M]. 北京:高等教育出版社, 2002.
    [17]
    RUETSCH G R, VERVISCH L, LIA'N A. Effects of heat release on triple flames[J]. Physics of Fluids, 1995,7(6):1447.
    [18]
    UPATNIEKS A, DRISCOLL J F, RASMUSSEN C C, et al. Liftoff of turbulent jet flames:Assessment of edge flame and other concepts using cinema-PIV[J]. Combustion and Flame, 2004,138(3):259-272.
    [19]
    LEE B J, KIM J S, CHUNG S H. Effect of dilution on the liftoff of non-premixed jet flames[J]. Symposium (International) on Combustion, 1994, 25(1): 1175-1181.
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Catalog

    [1]
    LYONS K M. Toward an understanding of the stabilization mechanisms of lifted turbulent jet flames: Experiments[J]. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 2007,33(2):211-231.
    [2]
    LAWN C J. Lifted flames on fuel jets in co-flowing air[J]. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 2009,35(1):1-30.
    [3]
    LEE B J, CHUNG S H. Stabilization of lifted tribrachial flames in a laminar nonpremixed jet[J]. Combustion and Flame, 1997,109(1/2):163-172.
    [4]
    XUE Y, JU Y. Studies on the liftoff properties of dimethyl ether jet diffusion flames[J]. Combustion Science and Technology, 2006,178(12):2219-2247.
    [5]
    LEUNG T, WIERZBA I. The effect of co-flow stream velocity on turbulent non-premixed jet flame stability[J]. Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 2009,32(2):1671-1678.
    [6]
    CHUNG S H. Stabilization, propagation and instability of tribrachial triple flames[J]. Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 2007,31(1):877-892.
    [7]
    KALGHATGI G T. Blow-out stability of gaseous jet diffusion flames. Part I: In still air[J]. Combustion Science and Technology, 1981, 26(5/6):233-239.
    [8]
    BROADWELL J E, DAHM W J, MUNGAL M G. Blowout of turbulent diffusion flames[J]. Symposium (International) on Combustion, 1985, 20(1):303-310.
    [9]
    CHAO Y, WU C, LEE K, et al. Effects of dilution on blowout limits of turbulent jet flames[J]. Combustion Science and Technology, 2004,176(10):1735-1753.
    [10]
    GOLLAHALLI S R, SAVA 塁 , HUANG R F, et al. Structure of attached and lifted gas jet flames in hysteresis region[J]. Symposium (International) on Combustion, 1988,21(1): 1463-1471.
    [11]
    WILSON D A, LYONS K M. Effects of dilution and co-flow on the stability of lifted non-premixed biogas-like flames[J]. Fuel, 2008,87(3):405-413.
    [12]
    VANQUICKENBORNE L, VAN TIGGELEN A. The stabilization mechanism of lifted diffusion flames[J]. Combustion and Flame, 1966,10(1):59-69.
    [13]
    GAUTAM T K. Lift-off heights and visible lengths of vertical turbulent jet diffusion flames in still air[J]. Combustion Science and Technology, 1984,41(1/2):17-29.
    [14]
    POINSOT T, VEYNANTE D. Theoretical and Numerical Combustion[M]. RT Edwards Incorporated, 2005.
    [15]
    KEE R J, RUPLEY F M, MILLER J A, et al. CHEMKIN Release 4.1[M]. San Diego, CA: Reaction Design, 2006.
    [16]
    曾丹苓, 敖越, 朱克雄. 工程热力学[M]. 北京:高等教育出版社, 2002.
    [17]
    RUETSCH G R, VERVISCH L, LIA'N A. Effects of heat release on triple flames[J]. Physics of Fluids, 1995,7(6):1447.
    [18]
    UPATNIEKS A, DRISCOLL J F, RASMUSSEN C C, et al. Liftoff of turbulent jet flames:Assessment of edge flame and other concepts using cinema-PIV[J]. Combustion and Flame, 2004,138(3):259-272.
    [19]
    LEE B J, KIM J S, CHUNG S H. Effect of dilution on the liftoff of non-premixed jet flames[J]. Symposium (International) on Combustion, 1994, 25(1): 1175-1181.

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