ISSN 0253-2778

CN 34-1054/N

Open AccessOpen Access JUSTC Earth and Space Sciences 16 May 2022

Petroleum-contaminated soil extent recorded by δ15N and δ13C of plants and soils

Cite this:
https://doi.org/10.52396/JUSTC-2021-0270
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  • Author Bio:

    Zhoufeng Wang is a lecturer with Chang’an University. He received his Ph.D. degree from the Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, in July 2008, and joined Chang’an University in the same year. His research interests focus on stable nitrogen isotope in the plant-soil system and the coupling mechanism of water, air, and heat transport in the critical zone

  • Corresponding author: E-mail: wangzf@chd.edu.cn
  • Received Date: 20 December 2021
  • Accepted Date: 18 April 2022
  • Available Online: 16 May 2022
  • Petroleum contamination in terrestrial environments caused by industrial activities is a significant problem that has received considerable attention. Carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions (δ13C and δ15N) effectively describe the behavior of plants and soils under petroleum contamination stress. To better understand plant and soil responses to petroleum-contaminated soil, δ13C and δ15N values of the plants (Trifolium repens, Leguminosae with C3 photosynthesis pathway, and Agropyron cristatum with C4 photosynthesis pathway) and the soil samples under one-month exposure to different extents of petroleum contamination were measured. The results showed that petroleum contamination in the soil induced the soil δ15N values to increase and δ13C values to decrease; from 1.9‰ to 3.2‰ and from −23.6‰ to −26.8‰, respectively. However, the δ13C values of Agropyron cristatum decreased from −29.8‰ to −31.6‰, and the δ13C values of Trifolium repens remained relatively stable from −12.6‰ to −13.1‰, indicating that they have different coping strategies under petroleum-contaminated soil conditions. Moreover, the δ15N values of Trifolium repens decreased from 5.6‰ to 0.8‰ near the air δ15N values under petroleum-contaminated soil, which implies that their nitrogen fixation system works to reduce soil petroleum stress. The δ13C and δ15N values of Agropyron cristatum and Trifolium repens reflect changes in the metabolic system when they confront stressful environments. Therefore, stable isotopic compositions are useful proxies for monitoring petroleum-contaminated soil and evaluating the response of plants to petroleum contamination stress.
    The δ13C and δ13N values of soil and plant changed with petroleum-contaminated soil concentration.
    Petroleum contamination in terrestrial environments caused by industrial activities is a significant problem that has received considerable attention. Carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions (δ13C and δ15N) effectively describe the behavior of plants and soils under petroleum contamination stress. To better understand plant and soil responses to petroleum-contaminated soil, δ13C and δ15N values of the plants (Trifolium repens, Leguminosae with C3 photosynthesis pathway, and Agropyron cristatum with C4 photosynthesis pathway) and the soil samples under one-month exposure to different extents of petroleum contamination were measured. The results showed that petroleum contamination in the soil induced the soil δ15N values to increase and δ13C values to decrease; from 1.9‰ to 3.2‰ and from −23.6‰ to −26.8‰, respectively. However, the δ13C values of Agropyron cristatum decreased from −29.8‰ to −31.6‰, and the δ13C values of Trifolium repens remained relatively stable from −12.6‰ to −13.1‰, indicating that they have different coping strategies under petroleum-contaminated soil conditions. Moreover, the δ15N values of Trifolium repens decreased from 5.6‰ to 0.8‰ near the air δ15N values under petroleum-contaminated soil, which implies that their nitrogen fixation system works to reduce soil petroleum stress. The δ13C and δ15N values of Agropyron cristatum and Trifolium repens reflect changes in the metabolic system when they confront stressful environments. Therefore, stable isotopic compositions are useful proxies for monitoring petroleum-contaminated soil and evaluating the response of plants to petroleum contamination stress.
    • Petroleum-contaminated soil induced the soil δ15N values to increase and δ13C values to decrease.
    • The characteristics of plants influence plant δ13C and δ15N values under petroleum-contaminated soil.
    • The δ13C and δ15N values are useful proxies for monitoring petroleum-contaminated soil and evaluating the response of plants to the stress of petroleum contamination.

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  • 加载中

Catalog

    Figure  1.  The Trifolium repens (a) and Agropyron cristatum (b) were collected from the experimental field after one month of growth. 0, 3000, 7000, and 10000 in the picture means the petroleum contamination concentration in the soil increased from 0, 3000, 7000 to 10000 mg/kg, respectively.

    Figure  2.  Soil δ13C variations under different petroleum pollution conditions with and without plants. Error bars indicate the standard deviation (n = 3). Different letters indicate significant differences among petroleum-contaminated soil concentrations ( p < 0.05).

    Figure  3.  Soil δ15N variations under different petroleum pollution conditions with and without plants. Error bars indicate the standard deviation (n = 3). Different letters indicate significant differences among petroleum-contaminated soil concentrations (p < 0.05).

    Figure  4.  δ13C changes of Agropyron cristatum and Trifolium repens under different soil petroleum pollution conditions. Error bars indicate the standard deviation (n = 3). Different letters indicate significant differences among petroleum-contaminated soil concentrations (p < 0.05).

    Figure  5.  δ15N changes of Agropyron cristatum and Trifolium repens under different soil petroleum pollution conditions. Error bars indicate the standard deviation (n = 3). Different letters indicate significant differences among petroleum-contaminated soil concentrations (p < 0.05).

    1S.  The δ15N values of the in-house standard. Five samples inserted one in-house standard to monitor the accuracy of the isotope-ratio mass spectrometer.

    [1]
    Volkman J K, Revill A T. Oil pollution and microbial regulation. In: Environmental and Ecological Chemistry. Oxford, UK: EOLSS Publishers, 2002, 2: 1-9.
    [2]
    Thapa B, Kumar KC A, Ghimire A. A review on bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants in soil. Kathmandu University Journal of Science Engineering and Technology, 2012, 8 (1): 164–170. doi: 10.3126/kuset.v8i1.6056
    [3]
    Osuagwu A N, Okigbo A U, Ekpo I A, et al. Effect of crude oil pollution on growth parameters, chlorophyll content and bulbils yield in air potato (Dioscorea bulbifera L.). International Journal of Applied Science Technology, 2013, 3 (4): 37–42.
    [4]
    Hoang S A, Lamb D, Seshadri B, et al. Rhizoremediation as a green technology for the remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2021, 401: 123282. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.123282
    [5]
    Ojimba T P. Determining the effects of crude oil pollution on crop production using stochastic translog production function in Rivers State, Nigeria. Journal of Development and Agricultural Economics, 2012, 4 (13): 346–360. doi: 10.5897/JDAE12.082
    [6]
    Obadimu C. Petroleum hydrocarbons contamination of surface water and groundwater in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health, 2018, 6 (2): 51–61. doi: 10.12691/jephh-6-2-2
    [7]
    Li T K, Liu Y, Lin S J, et al. Soil pollution management in China: A brief introduction. Sustainability, 2019, 11: 556. doi: 10.3390/su11030556
    [8]
    Hoang S A, Lamb D, Seshadri B, et al. Rhizoremediation as a green technology for the remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2020, 401: 123282. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.123282
    [9]
    Techtmann S M, Zhuang M, Campo P, et al. Corexit 9500 enhances oil biodegradation and changes active bacterial community structure of oil-enriched microcosms. Applied & Environmental Microbiology, 2017, 83: e03462-16. doi: 10.1128/AEM.03462-16
    [10]
    Wang Y P, Liang J D, Wang J X, et al. Combining stable carbon isotope analysis and petroleum-fingerprinting to evaluate petroleum contamination in the Yanchang oilfield located on Loess Plateau in China. Environmental Science & Pollution Research, 2018, 25: 2830–2841. doi: 10.1007/s11356-017-0500-6
    [11]
    Varjani S J. Microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. Bioresource Technology, 2017, 223: 277–286. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2016.10.037
    [12]
    Ossai I C, Ahmed A, Hassan A, et al. Remediation of soil and water contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbon: A review. Environmental Technology & Innovation, 2020, 17: 100526. doi: 10.1016/j.eti.2019.100526
    [13]
    Khan S, Afzal M, Iqbal S, et al. Plant-bacteria partnerships for the remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils. Chemosphere, 2013, 90 (4): 1317–1332. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.09.045
    [14]
    Tran H T, Lin C, Bui X T, et al. Aerobic composting remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. Current and future perspectives. Science of The Total Environment, 2021, 753: 142250. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.142250
    [15]
    Gan S, Lau E V, Ng H K. Remediation of soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2009, 172: 532–549. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.07.118
    [16]
    Ciric L, Philp J C, Whiteley A S. Hydrocarbon utilization within a diesel-degrading bacterial consortium. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 2010, 2: 116–122. doi: 10.1111/j.1574-6968.2009.01871.x
    [17]
    Lim M W, Lau E V, Poh P E. A comprehensive guide of remediation technologies for oil contaminated soil: Present works and future directions. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 2016, 109 (1): 14–45. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.04.023
    [18]
    Socolofsky S A, Gros J, North E, et al. The treatment of biodegradation in models of sub-surface oil spills: A review and sensitivity study. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 2019, 143: 204–219. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2019.04.018
    [19]
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