ISSN 0253-2778

CN 34-1054/N

Open AccessOpen Access JUSTC Original Paper

Effect of defocusing distance along Z axis on laser cladding forming

Cite this:
https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.0253-2778.2018.03.007
  • Received Date: 21 July 2017
  • Rev Recd Date: 04 December 2017
  • Publish Date: 31 March 2018
  • The variation of distance between laser head and substrate (named defocus distance) has a considerable effect on powder utilization efficiency and energy density, therefore affecting the laser cladding forming (LCF) process. Orthogonal experiments L16 (44) of the four parameters: laser power, scanning speed, gas flow rate and defocusing distance and single factor experiment of the defocusing distance along Z axis were conducted to investigate the coupling effects of these parameters on LCF process. The result of orthogonal experiment suggests that all four parameters play important roles in LCF, and the order of factors which affect the cladding efficiency is: laser power>gas flow rate>defocusing distance>scanning speed. The result of the single factor experiment indicates that the optimal cladding quality occurs when the defocusing distance reaches a certain level. The maximum cladding layer height can be achieved when the defocusing distance is 5mm. The cladding layer height is reduced when the defocusing distance is less or larger than 5mm. It is proved that the powder utilization efficiency gradually increases and then decreases when the defocusing distance keeps increasing.
    The variation of distance between laser head and substrate (named defocus distance) has a considerable effect on powder utilization efficiency and energy density, therefore affecting the laser cladding forming (LCF) process. Orthogonal experiments L16 (44) of the four parameters: laser power, scanning speed, gas flow rate and defocusing distance and single factor experiment of the defocusing distance along Z axis were conducted to investigate the coupling effects of these parameters on LCF process. The result of orthogonal experiment suggests that all four parameters play important roles in LCF, and the order of factors which affect the cladding efficiency is: laser power>gas flow rate>defocusing distance>scanning speed. The result of the single factor experiment indicates that the optimal cladding quality occurs when the defocusing distance reaches a certain level. The maximum cladding layer height can be achieved when the defocusing distance is 5mm. The cladding layer height is reduced when the defocusing distance is less or larger than 5mm. It is proved that the powder utilization efficiency gradually increases and then decreases when the defocusing distance keeps increasing.
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  • [1]
    江吉彬,练国富,许明三. 激光熔覆技术研究现状及趋势[J]. 重庆理工大学学报(自然科学),2015,29(1): 27-36.
    JIANG Jibin,LIAN Guofu,XU Mingsan. Research on status and trend of laser cladding[J]. Journal of Chongqing University of Technology(Natural Science),2015,29(1): 27-36.
    [2]
    TOYSERKANI E, KHAJEPOUR A, CORBIN S. Laser Cladding[M]. 1st ed. New York: CRC Press, 2005.
    [3]
    王鑫林,邓德伟,胡恒,等. Z轴单层行程对激光熔覆成形的影响[J]. 激光技术,2015,39(5): 702-705.
    WANG Xinlin, DENG Dewei, HU Heng, et al. Effect of single z-increment on laser cladding forming[J]. Laser Technology,2015,39(5): 702-705.
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    朱刚贤,张安峰,李涤尘,等. 激光金属制造薄壁零件z轴单层行程模型[J]. 焊接学报,2010,31(8): 57-60.
    ZHU Gangxian, ZHANG Anfeng, LI Dichen, et al. Model of layer thickness of thin-walled parts in laser metal direct manufacturing[J]. Transactions of the China Welding Institution,2010,31(8): 57-60.
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    李建忠,黎向锋,左敦稳,等. 模拟研究离焦量对7050铝合金Al/Ti熔覆过程的影响[J]. 红外与激光工程,2015,44(4): 1126-1133.
    LI Jianzhong, LI Xiangfeng, ZUO Dunwen, et al. Influence of defocusing amount on the process of Al/Ti cladding above 7050 aluminum alloy based on numerical simulation study[J]. Infrared and Laser Engineering,2015,44(4): 1126-1133.
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    邱星武. 离焦量对激光熔覆层组织及性能的影响[J]. 精密成形工程,2017, 9(2): 98-101.
    QIU Xingwu. Effects of defocusing distance on microstructure and properties of laser cladding layer[J]. Journal of Netshape Forming Engineering, 2017, 9(2): 98-101.
    [7]
    魏金龙,于爱兵,施晨淳,等. 工艺参数对激光熔覆裂纹缺陷的影响[J]. 激光杂志,2016,37(4): 7-10.
    WEI Jinlong, YU Aibing, SHI Chenchun, et al. Influence of process parameters on laser cladding crack defects[J]. Laser Journal, 2016,37(4): 7-10.
    [8]
    张德强,张吉庆,李金华,等. 离焦量对45#钢表面激光熔覆镍基碳化钨粉的影响[J]. 表面技术,2015,44(12): 92-97.
    ZHANG Deqiang, ZHANG Jiqing, LI Jinhua, et al. Effect of defocusing amount on laser cladding of self-fluxing Ni-based WC on 45# steel surface[J]. Surface Technology, 2015,44(12): 92-97.
    [9]
    GAO W, ZHAO S, LIU F, et al. Effect of defocus manner on laser cladding of Fe-based alloy powder[J]. Surface and Coatings Technology, 2014, 248(13): 54-62.
    [10]
    RAUF M M, SHAHID M, DURRANI Y A, et al. Cladding of Ni–20Cr coatings by optimizing the CO2 laser parameters[J]. Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, 2016, 41(6): 2353-2362.
    [11]
    RIQUELME A, RODRIGO P, ESCALERA-RODRGUEZ M D, et al. Analysis and optimization of process parameters in Al-SiCp laser cladding[J]. Optics and Lasers in Engineering, 2016,78(2):165-173.
    [12]
    MAHAMOOD R M, AKINLABI E T. Processing parameters optimization for material deposition efficiency in laser metal deposited titanium alloy[J]. Lasers in Manufacturing and Materials Processing, 2016,3(1):9-21.
    [13]
    FU F X, ZHANG Y L, CHANG G R, et al. Analysis on the physical mechanism of laser cladding crack and its influence factors[J]. Optik, 2016, 127(1): 200-202.
    [14]
    WANG D Z, HU Q W, ZHENG Y L, et al. Study on deposition rate and laser energy efficiency of laser-induction hybrid cladding[J]. Optics & Laser Technology, 2016, 77:16-22.
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Catalog

    [1]
    江吉彬,练国富,许明三. 激光熔覆技术研究现状及趋势[J]. 重庆理工大学学报(自然科学),2015,29(1): 27-36.
    JIANG Jibin,LIAN Guofu,XU Mingsan. Research on status and trend of laser cladding[J]. Journal of Chongqing University of Technology(Natural Science),2015,29(1): 27-36.
    [2]
    TOYSERKANI E, KHAJEPOUR A, CORBIN S. Laser Cladding[M]. 1st ed. New York: CRC Press, 2005.
    [3]
    王鑫林,邓德伟,胡恒,等. Z轴单层行程对激光熔覆成形的影响[J]. 激光技术,2015,39(5): 702-705.
    WANG Xinlin, DENG Dewei, HU Heng, et al. Effect of single z-increment on laser cladding forming[J]. Laser Technology,2015,39(5): 702-705.
    [4]
    朱刚贤,张安峰,李涤尘,等. 激光金属制造薄壁零件z轴单层行程模型[J]. 焊接学报,2010,31(8): 57-60.
    ZHU Gangxian, ZHANG Anfeng, LI Dichen, et al. Model of layer thickness of thin-walled parts in laser metal direct manufacturing[J]. Transactions of the China Welding Institution,2010,31(8): 57-60.
    [5]
    李建忠,黎向锋,左敦稳,等. 模拟研究离焦量对7050铝合金Al/Ti熔覆过程的影响[J]. 红外与激光工程,2015,44(4): 1126-1133.
    LI Jianzhong, LI Xiangfeng, ZUO Dunwen, et al. Influence of defocusing amount on the process of Al/Ti cladding above 7050 aluminum alloy based on numerical simulation study[J]. Infrared and Laser Engineering,2015,44(4): 1126-1133.
    [6]
    邱星武. 离焦量对激光熔覆层组织及性能的影响[J]. 精密成形工程,2017, 9(2): 98-101.
    QIU Xingwu. Effects of defocusing distance on microstructure and properties of laser cladding layer[J]. Journal of Netshape Forming Engineering, 2017, 9(2): 98-101.
    [7]
    魏金龙,于爱兵,施晨淳,等. 工艺参数对激光熔覆裂纹缺陷的影响[J]. 激光杂志,2016,37(4): 7-10.
    WEI Jinlong, YU Aibing, SHI Chenchun, et al. Influence of process parameters on laser cladding crack defects[J]. Laser Journal, 2016,37(4): 7-10.
    [8]
    张德强,张吉庆,李金华,等. 离焦量对45#钢表面激光熔覆镍基碳化钨粉的影响[J]. 表面技术,2015,44(12): 92-97.
    ZHANG Deqiang, ZHANG Jiqing, LI Jinhua, et al. Effect of defocusing amount on laser cladding of self-fluxing Ni-based WC on 45# steel surface[J]. Surface Technology, 2015,44(12): 92-97.
    [9]
    GAO W, ZHAO S, LIU F, et al. Effect of defocus manner on laser cladding of Fe-based alloy powder[J]. Surface and Coatings Technology, 2014, 248(13): 54-62.
    [10]
    RAUF M M, SHAHID M, DURRANI Y A, et al. Cladding of Ni–20Cr coatings by optimizing the CO2 laser parameters[J]. Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, 2016, 41(6): 2353-2362.
    [11]
    RIQUELME A, RODRIGO P, ESCALERA-RODRGUEZ M D, et al. Analysis and optimization of process parameters in Al-SiCp laser cladding[J]. Optics and Lasers in Engineering, 2016,78(2):165-173.
    [12]
    MAHAMOOD R M, AKINLABI E T. Processing parameters optimization for material deposition efficiency in laser metal deposited titanium alloy[J]. Lasers in Manufacturing and Materials Processing, 2016,3(1):9-21.
    [13]
    FU F X, ZHANG Y L, CHANG G R, et al. Analysis on the physical mechanism of laser cladding crack and its influence factors[J]. Optik, 2016, 127(1): 200-202.
    [14]
    WANG D Z, HU Q W, ZHENG Y L, et al. Study on deposition rate and laser energy efficiency of laser-induction hybrid cladding[J]. Optics & Laser Technology, 2016, 77:16-22.

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