ISSN 0253-2778

CN 34-1054/N

2018 Vol. 48, No. 10

Display Method:
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a starting point of the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus?
WENG Jianping, BI Yan, ZHU Dalong, GUAN Youfei
2018, 48(10): 777-780. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2778.2018.10.001
With changes in lifestyle, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most common liver disease. As metabolic diseases, NAFLD is strongly associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). An individual’s risk of developing diabetes is increased approximately 5-fold if they have NAFLD. Numerous studies suggest that NAFLD has a causal role in the onset of T2DM.Therefore, unraveling the relationship between lipid metabolism disturbance and T2DM contributes to the understanding of the etiology of T2DM and the intervention of T2DM.This paper reviewed the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of T2DM by NAFLD such as insulin resistance, increased inflammatory mediator release, induction of metabolic dysfunction by hepatokines, impaired β-cell function, influence on incretin by liver and decreased insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue.
The role of neutrophil extracellular traps in the tumor progression
WU Dehai, ZHANG Shugeng, LIU Lianxin
2018, 48(10): 781-784. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2778.2018.10.002
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are neutrophil-derived DNA structures. They have been shown to trap and kill microorganisms, playing a critical role in host defense. Increasing evidence has shown that NETs have a close relationship with tumor progression. And their contribution to tumor recurrence and metastasis has been demonstrated in a number of studies.Furthermore, the clinical significance of NETs has also been highlighted. In this review, emphasis was laid on the mechanism of the formation of NETs and their role in tumor progression in a cancer promoting microenvironment. In addition, the clinical value of NETs was also explored.
Advances on EGFR-TKIs and acquired resistance mechanisms in non-small cell lung cancer
PAN Yueyin
2018, 48(10): 785-790. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2778.2018.10.003
Nowadays, EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) have become the first-line treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with EGFR-sensitive mutations. However, acquired drug resistance remains an unavoidable bottleneck in clinical application. Herein, the mechanisms of acquired drug resistance were reviewed first, including secondary mutation of EGFR, amplification of MET gene, IGF1R and amplification of HER2. Then, therapeutic
UCBT is the best transplant type for separation of GVHD and GVL
SUN Zimin
2018, 48(10): 791-796. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2778.2018.10.004
Umbilical cord blood (CB) has now become one of the most commonly used sources of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) for allogeneic transplantation. Substantial advances have been made resulting in better outcomes for patients. Many studies have shown a decreased relapse rate and a reduced chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) rate with an increased GVHD-free/relapse-free survival (GRFS) rate and better quality of life after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells transplantation (HCT) with CB compared with other donor sources. With the technical improvement of cord blood transplantation (CBT), unrelated umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) is being gradually used to treat a wider range of patients, such as those with non-hematological malignancies and aged patients. This paper reviewed the current status of diagnosis and treatment of UCBT.
The application of NK cells in tumor immunotherapy
CHEN Minhua, WANG Wei, FANG Fang, XIAO Weihua
2018, 48(10): 797-800. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2778.2018.10.005
Natural killer cells recognize malignant cells through MHC I-independent mechanism, with no requirements of pre-sensitizing and being capable of quick killing target cells, which gives them a strong potential in cancer immunotherapy. Both NK and T cells are effect cells with killing property in the human body, but they are distinct by classification as innate and adoptive immunity, using different mechanisms to recognize the target cells. Additionally, NK cells can regulate T cell response and modulate tumor microenvironments. Therefore, the combination of NK and T cells could produce synergistic effects in cancer immunotherapy with their own properties. Previous clinical studies have shown that NK cell therapy demonstrated satisfactory efficacy and safety in hematologic disorders. This paper reviewed
Research advance of NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor
HE Hongbin, JIANG Wei
2018, 48(10): 801-809. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2778.2018.10.006
NLRP3 is an important intracellular pattern recognition receptor, which can form inflammasome with ASC and pro-caspase-1. Formation of NLRP3 inflammasome leads to maturity and secretion of inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β and IL-18, and then causes the inflammation. Dysregulation of NLRP3 inflammasome is associated with several human diseases, such as gout, atherosclerosis, neurodegenerative diseases and type 2 diabetes, so NLRP3 inflammasome is a potential target for treatment of those diseases, and several NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitors have shown preventive or therapeutic effects on NLRP3-driven diseases. In this paper the recent research advance of NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor was briefly reviewed.
Research progress on the role of lncRNA HULC in tumors
LI Qian, HE Jie
2018, 48(10): 810-813. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2778.2018.10.007
In recent years, with the rapid development of molecular biology research, increasing attention has been paid to long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) ,whose role in tumor occurrence, development, treatment and prognosis has also been gradually recognized. HULC (highly up-reglated in liver cancer) is a type of lncRNA called liver cancer highly expressed transcript, which was first discovered in liver cancer. Recent studies have revealed that it is also closely related to many other cancers such as gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, osteosarcoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphomas . This paper reviewed the research progress of HULC expression and its mechanism of action in several different tumor tissues.
Genetic basis and mechanisms underlying human azoospermia
JIANG Xiaohua, YU Changping, GUO Tonghang, JIN Rentao, LUAN Hongbing, XU Bo, ZHANG Yuanwei, SHI Qinghua
2018, 48(10): 814-824. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2778.2018.10.008
Any abnormalities occurring in spermatogenesis may lead to azoospermia, finally resulting in male infertility. However, the molecular basis and mechanisms underlying these defects remain unidentified. In this review, by analyzing the existing diagnosis and treatments of azoospermia and summarizing the latest research on human spermatogenetic abnormalities, the limitations of current investigations were summarized and new ideas were proposed for future research, in the hope of taking full advantages of our existing resources and technologies to discover the cause of azoospermia, reveal the pathogenesis and finally promote male reproductive health.
The progress of drug discoveries for Alzheimer’s disease
LIN Tingting, ZHAN Yaxi, FU Shumei, BI Danlei, SHEN Yong
2018, 48(10): 825-837. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2778.2018.10.009
Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disease, is the major cause of dementia. The pathological hallmarks of AD include senile plaques aggregated by amyloid-β (Aβ), neurofibrillary tangles formed by hyperphosphorylated tau, neuron dysfunction and degeneration, and chronic inflammation in the brain. Based on these pathologies in the AD brain, there are four pathogenic hypotheses for AD. Correspondingly, drug discoveries have also been focused on the signaling pathways related to the hypotheses. This mini review summarized the progress of drug discoveries and clinical trials of AD, highlighted the recent breakthroughs in the past 5 years, and discussed the limitations in the field.
Recent advances in the study of microRNAs of exosomes in glioma
XU Feng, NIU Wanxiang, XIE Shishuai, NIU Chaoshi
2018, 48(10): 838-841. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2778.2018.10.010
Exosomes are extracellular vesicles that can be secreted by a variety of cells in the body. The lipid bilayer composed of membrane proteins is surrounded by proteins and nucleic acids, and has a diameter ranging from 30 to 100 nm. It contains genetic materials such as microRNAs(miRNAs) and mRNAs, and has functions such as material exchange and information transmission between cells, and it has a non-negligible effect on many physiological and pathological processes in the body. In recent years, miRNAs in exosomes have attracted the attention of scholars at home and abroad. They have been found to be involved in tumorigenesis, development, tumor angiogenesis, etc. To better understand the role of miRNAs in exosomes in gliomas, this paper reviewed the relationship between miRNAs in exosomes and the development and progression of glioma, tumor angiogenesis, and tumor metabolism, and explored their research progress in the diagnosis and treatment of glioma.
Recent advances in analytical techniques for single-cell metabolomics
ZHU Hongying, YI Lin, WANG Ziyi, XIONG Wei
2018, 48(10): 842-852. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2778.2018.10.011
The cell is the fundamental unit of structure and function of all living organisms and plays critical roles in various biological processes. The biological research at the cellular level, especially at the single-cell level, is a unique way for discovering the secret of life. Single cell metabolomics has attracted increasing attention in recent years since cell metabolism exists and plays important roles in almost all biological processes. This review introduced several methods that have been applied to the single-cell level research, including fluorescence, electrochemistry, chromatography and mass spectrometry. The recently developed single-cell mass spectrometry technique provides accurate metabolic information on the cell and combines cell metabolism with various biological processes. Single-cell mass spectrometry technology has plenty of advantages such as directness,rapidity, high efficiency and in situ sampling and analysis, promising broad applications of this technology in biological research in the future.
ABC transporters and human diseases
HOU Wentao, WANG Liang, XU Da, CHEN Yuxing, ZHOU Congzhao
2018, 48(10): 853-861. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2778.2018.10.012
Adenosine triphosphate(ATP) binding cassette transporters, known as ABC transporters, is a kind of active transporters which can be found in all kingdoms of life. It normally consists of four domains: two transmembrane domains (TMD) and two nucleotide-binding domains (NBD). NBDs hydrolyzes ATPs, and the produced energy can be used by TMDs to transport substrates across the membrane against the chemical potential. ABC transporters anticipate in a variety of physiological process, because almost all functional molecules can be recognized as substrates by ABC transporters. The human genome encodes 48 ABC transporters in total, and dysfunction of the transporters is directly related to some major diseases. This essay summarized the classification and features of human ABCs, and emphasized the latest research progress of structure studies of human ABC transporters, as well as their relations with human diseases.
Imaging progress of quantitative diagnosis of fatty liver
WEI Wei, DENG Kexue, LI Junjun
2018, 48(10): 862-867. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2778.2018.10.013
Fatty liver is closely related to hepatitis, liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and many metabolic and infectious diseases. It includes a series of diseases characterized by excessive deposition of triglyceride in hepatocytes. The early diagnosis of fatty liver and its intervention can bring about the fatty liver cells back to normal. Therefore, it is of great significance to apply noninvasive methods to diagnose fatty liver and follow up on the therapeutic effect. In this paper, the status quo and progress of ultrasound, CT, MRI and other imaging methods in the qualitative and quantitative diagnosis of fatty liver were reviewed.