ISSN 0253-2778

CN 34-1054/N

Open AccessOpen Access JUSTC Engineering & Materials 20 April 2022

Experimental study on the effect of additives on the heat transfer performance of spray cold plate

Cite this:
https://doi.org/10.52396/JUSTC-2021-0152
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  • Author Bio:

    Ruoxin Liu is currently a Master student in the Energy and Heat Transfer Laboratory of the Department of Thermal Science and Energy Engineering under the supervision of Prof. Wenlong Cheng at University of Science and Technology of China. His research mainly focuses on high heat flux heat dissipation and related research on surfactants

    Wenglong Cheng received his PhD degree in engineering thermophysics from University of Science and Technology of China in 2002 and is currently a professor of University of Science and Technology of China. His research interests include high heat flux heat dissipation and heat and mass transfer enhancement, thermal control and thermal management, thermal analysis of complex systems, and energy conversion and advanced power systems

  • Corresponding author: E-mail: wlcheng515@163.com
  • Received Date: 29 July 2021
  • Accepted Date: 20 August 2021
  • Available Online: 20 April 2022
  • The spray cold plate has a compact structure and high-efficiency heat exchange, which can meet the requirements of high heat flux dissipation of multiple heat sources, and is a reliable means to solve the heat dissipation of the next generation of chips. This paper proposes to use surfactants to enhance the heat transfer of the spray cold plate, and conduct a systematic experimental study on the heat transfer performance of the spray cold plate under different types and concentrations of additives. It was found that among the three surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) can improve the heat transfer performance of the spray cold plate, and at the optimal concentration of 200ppm, the heat transfer coefficient of the spray cold plate was increased significantly by 19.8%. Both the n-octanol-distilled water and Tween 20-distilled water can reduce the heat transfer performance of the cold plate using multi nozzles. In addition, based on the experimental data, the dimensionless heat transfers correlations for the spray cold plate using additives were conducted, and the maximum errors of dimensionless correlations for using additives were 2.1%, 2.8%, and 5.4% respectively. This discovery provides a theoretical analysis and basis for the improvement of spray cold plates.

      Adding 200 ppm of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) can increase the heat transfer coefficient of the spray cold plate by 19.8%

    The spray cold plate has a compact structure and high-efficiency heat exchange, which can meet the requirements of high heat flux dissipation of multiple heat sources, and is a reliable means to solve the heat dissipation of the next generation of chips. This paper proposes to use surfactants to enhance the heat transfer of the spray cold plate, and conduct a systematic experimental study on the heat transfer performance of the spray cold plate under different types and concentrations of additives. It was found that among the three surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) can improve the heat transfer performance of the spray cold plate, and at the optimal concentration of 200ppm, the heat transfer coefficient of the spray cold plate was increased significantly by 19.8%. Both the n-octanol-distilled water and Tween 20-distilled water can reduce the heat transfer performance of the cold plate using multi nozzles. In addition, based on the experimental data, the dimensionless heat transfers correlations for the spray cold plate using additives were conducted, and the maximum errors of dimensionless correlations for using additives were 2.1%, 2.8%, and 5.4% respectively. This discovery provides a theoretical analysis and basis for the improvement of spray cold plates.

    • The spray cold plate can meet the heat dissipation needs of compact and multiple heat sources.
    • The strengthening effect of additives under the condition of spray cold plate is greatly weakened, but there are still some concentrations of additives that have positive effects. For example, adding 200 ppm of SDS can increase the heat transfer coefficient of the spray cold plate by 19.8%.
    • The mechanism of additive strengthening was studied and the heat transfer correlation formula of additive acting on spray cold plate was obtained. The maximum errors were 2.1%, 2.8% and 5.4% respectively.

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    [2]
    Xu X, Wang Y, Bang Y, et al. Recent advances in closed loop spray cooling and its application in airborne systems. Journal of Thermal Science, 2021, 30 (1): 32–50. doi: 10.1007/s11630-020-1395-y
    [3]
    Fucheng H, Haihong D, Fan M. Research on simulation of heat transfer characteristics of intermittent spray cooling. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 2021, 647: 012060. doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/647/1/012060
    [4]
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    [5]
    Yata V V R, Bostanci H. Investigation of spray cooling schemes for dynamic thermal management. Proceedings of the 16th Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems Itherm. Orlando, USA: IEEE, 2017: 744-751. https://ieeexploreieee.53yu.com/abstract/document/7992560/
    [6]
    Alkhedhair A, Jahn I, Gurgenci H, et al. Parametric study on spray cooling system for optimising nozzle design with pre-cooling application in natural draft dry cooling towers. International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 2016, 104: 448–460. doi: 10.1016/j.ijthermalsci.2016.02.004
    [7]
    Jiang L J, Jiang S L, Cheng W L, et al. Experimental study on heat transfer performance of a novel compact spray cooling module. Applied Thermal Engineering, 2019, 154: 150–156. doi: 10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2019.03.078
    [8]
    Wang Y, Zhou N, Yang Z, et al. Experimental investigation of aircraft spray cooling system with different heating surfaces and different additives. Applied Thermal Engineering, 2016, 103: 510–521. doi: 10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2016.04.124
    [9]
    Das L, Munshi B, Mohapatra S S. The enhancement of spray cooling performance in nucleate and transition boiling regimes by using saline water containing dissolved carbon dioxide. Journal of Thermal Science and Engineering Applications, 2019, 12 (2): 4044170. doi: 10.1115/1.4044170
    [10]
    Pati A R, Mohapatra S S. The effect of oxide layer in case of novel coolant spray at very high initial surface temperature. Experimental Heat Transfer, 2019, 32 (2): 116–132. doi: 10.1080/08916152.2018.1485784
    [11]
    Khoshvaght-Aliabadi M, Deldar S, Hassani S M. Effects of pin-fins geometry and nanofluid on the performance of a pin-fin miniature heat sink (PFMHS). International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 2018, 148: 442–458. doi: 10.1016/j.ijmecsci.2018.09.019
    [12]
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    [13]
    Khoshvaght-Aliabadi M, Hassani S M, Mazloumi S H, et al. Effects of nooks configuration on hydrothermal performance of zigzag channels for nanofluid-cooled microelectronic heat sink. Microelectronics Reliability, 2017, 79: 153–165. doi: 10.1016/j.microrel.2017.10.024
    [14]
    Cheng W L, Zhang W W, Jiang L J, et al. Experimental investigation of large area spray cooling with compact chamber in the non-boiling regime. Applied Thermal Engineering, 2015, 80: 160–167. doi: 10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2015.01.055
    [15]
    Cheng W, Xie B, Han F, et al. An experimental investigation of heat transfer enhancement by addition of high-alcohol surfactant (HAS) and dissolving salt additive (DSA) in spray cooling. Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 2013, 45: 198–202. doi: 10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2012.11.005
    [16]
    Chen H, Cheng W L, Peng Y H, et al. Dynamic Leidenfrost temperature increase of impacting droplets containing high-alcohol surfactant. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 2018, 118: 1160–1168. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2017.11.100
    [17]
    Zhang W W, Li Y Y, Long W J, et al. Enhancement mechanism of high alcohol surfactant on spray cooling: Experimental study. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 2018, 126: 363–376. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2018.05.130
    [18]
    Li Y Y, Zhao R, Long W J, et al. Theoretical study of heat transfer enhancement mechanism of high alcohol surfactant in spray cooling. International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 2021, 163: 106816. doi: 10.1016/j.ijthermalsci.2020.106816
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    Figure  1.  Physical picture and the internal flow channel design of the spray cold plate.

    Figure  2.  Spray cold plate experimental system.

    Figure  3.  Cooling curve and heat transfer coefficient curve under different SDS concentration.

    Figure  4.  Cooling curve and heat transfer coefficient curve under different n-octanol concentration.

    Figure  5.  Cooling curve and heat transfer coefficient curve under different Tween 20 concentration.

    Figure  6.  Comparison of results between spray cold plate and single nozzle.

    Figure  7.  The change curve of additive viscosity and surface tension with concentration at 25 ℃.

    Figure  8.  Fitting curve and experimental value of SDS.

    Figure  9.  Fitting curve and experimental value of n-octanol.

    Figure  10.  Fitting curve and experimental value of Tween 20.

    [1]
    Sharratt S A. Optimized structures for low-profile phase change thermal spreaders. UCLA, 2012. https://www.proquest.com/openview/458543586e3fc0902691c769a42a91e7/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=18750
    [2]
    Xu X, Wang Y, Bang Y, et al. Recent advances in closed loop spray cooling and its application in airborne systems. Journal of Thermal Science, 2021, 30 (1): 32–50. doi: 10.1007/s11630-020-1395-y
    [3]
    Fucheng H, Haihong D, Fan M. Research on simulation of heat transfer characteristics of intermittent spray cooling. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 2021, 647: 012060. doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/647/1/012060
    [4]
    Zhou Z F, Chen B, Wang R, et al. Comparative investigation on the spray characteristics and heat transfer dynamics of pulsed spray cooling with volatile cryogens. Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 2017, 82: 189–197. doi: 10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2016.11.016
    [5]
    Yata V V R, Bostanci H. Investigation of spray cooling schemes for dynamic thermal management. Proceedings of the 16th Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems Itherm. Orlando, USA: IEEE, 2017: 744-751. https://ieeexploreieee.53yu.com/abstract/document/7992560/
    [6]
    Alkhedhair A, Jahn I, Gurgenci H, et al. Parametric study on spray cooling system for optimising nozzle design with pre-cooling application in natural draft dry cooling towers. International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 2016, 104: 448–460. doi: 10.1016/j.ijthermalsci.2016.02.004
    [7]
    Jiang L J, Jiang S L, Cheng W L, et al. Experimental study on heat transfer performance of a novel compact spray cooling module. Applied Thermal Engineering, 2019, 154: 150–156. doi: 10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2019.03.078
    [8]
    Wang Y, Zhou N, Yang Z, et al. Experimental investigation of aircraft spray cooling system with different heating surfaces and different additives. Applied Thermal Engineering, 2016, 103: 510–521. doi: 10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2016.04.124
    [9]
    Das L, Munshi B, Mohapatra S S. The enhancement of spray cooling performance in nucleate and transition boiling regimes by using saline water containing dissolved carbon dioxide. Journal of Thermal Science and Engineering Applications, 2019, 12 (2): 4044170. doi: 10.1115/1.4044170
    [10]
    Pati A R, Mohapatra S S. The effect of oxide layer in case of novel coolant spray at very high initial surface temperature. Experimental Heat Transfer, 2019, 32 (2): 116–132. doi: 10.1080/08916152.2018.1485784
    [11]
    Khoshvaght-Aliabadi M, Deldar S, Hassani S M. Effects of pin-fins geometry and nanofluid on the performance of a pin-fin miniature heat sink (PFMHS). International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 2018, 148: 442–458. doi: 10.1016/j.ijmecsci.2018.09.019
    [12]
    Hassani S M, Khoshvaght-Aliabadi M, Mazloumi S H. Influence of chevron fin interruption on thermo-fluidic transport characteristics of nanofluid-cooled electronic heat sink. Chemical Engineering Science, 2018, 191: 436–447. doi: 10.1016/j.ces.2018.07.010
    [13]
    Khoshvaght-Aliabadi M, Hassani S M, Mazloumi S H, et al. Effects of nooks configuration on hydrothermal performance of zigzag channels for nanofluid-cooled microelectronic heat sink. Microelectronics Reliability, 2017, 79: 153–165. doi: 10.1016/j.microrel.2017.10.024
    [14]
    Cheng W L, Zhang W W, Jiang L J, et al. Experimental investigation of large area spray cooling with compact chamber in the non-boiling regime. Applied Thermal Engineering, 2015, 80: 160–167. doi: 10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2015.01.055
    [15]
    Cheng W, Xie B, Han F, et al. An experimental investigation of heat transfer enhancement by addition of high-alcohol surfactant (HAS) and dissolving salt additive (DSA) in spray cooling. Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 2013, 45: 198–202. doi: 10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2012.11.005
    [16]
    Chen H, Cheng W L, Peng Y H, et al. Dynamic Leidenfrost temperature increase of impacting droplets containing high-alcohol surfactant. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 2018, 118: 1160–1168. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2017.11.100
    [17]
    Zhang W W, Li Y Y, Long W J, et al. Enhancement mechanism of high alcohol surfactant on spray cooling: Experimental study. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 2018, 126: 363–376. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2018.05.130
    [18]
    Li Y Y, Zhao R, Long W J, et al. Theoretical study of heat transfer enhancement mechanism of high alcohol surfactant in spray cooling. International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 2021, 163: 106816. doi: 10.1016/j.ijthermalsci.2020.106816

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