ISSN 0253-2778

CN 34-1054/N

Open AccessOpen Access JUSTC Information Science

Recent progress in electronic skin: Materials, functions and applications

Cite this:
https://doi.org/10.52396/JUST-2021-0075
  • Received Date: 15 March 2021
  • Rev Recd Date: 30 March 2021
  • Publish Date: 31 October 2021
  • Electronic skin refers to a device that imitates the characteristics of human skin and has similar perception functions. Benefiting from its excellent wearability and versatility, it has shown great applications in the fields of health monitoring, human-computer interaction and machine perception in recent years and has attracted much attention.This article summarizes the research progress of electronic skin in recent years from three aspects of material properties, functional properties and typical applications. It focuses on how to realize the stretchability, self-repairing and biocompatibility of electronic skin, and the real-time monitoring of physical, chemical and electrophysiological signals. Finally, the challenges and possible solutions for the further development of electronic skin are discussed and prospected.As an emerging research hotspot, electronic skin requires the cooperation of scientists in many fields, such as materials science, informatics, engineering, and biology, in order to fully realize its potential.
    Electronic skin refers to a device that imitates the characteristics of human skin and has similar perception functions. Benefiting from its excellent wearability and versatility, it has shown great applications in the fields of health monitoring, human-computer interaction and machine perception in recent years and has attracted much attention.This article summarizes the research progress of electronic skin in recent years from three aspects of material properties, functional properties and typical applications. It focuses on how to realize the stretchability, self-repairing and biocompatibility of electronic skin, and the real-time monitoring of physical, chemical and electrophysiological signals. Finally, the challenges and possible solutions for the further development of electronic skin are discussed and prospected.As an emerging research hotspot, electronic skin requires the cooperation of scientists in many fields, such as materials science, informatics, engineering, and biology, in order to fully realize its potential.
  • loading
  • [1]
    Wortmann F, Flüchter K. Internet of things. Business & Information Systems Engineering, 2015, 57(3): 221-224.
    [2]
    Whitmore A, Agarwal A, Xu L D. The Internet of things—A survey of topics and trends. Information Systems Frontiers, 2014, 17(2): 261-274.
    [3]
    Trung T Q, Lee N E. Flexible and stretchable physical sensor integrated platforms for wearable human-activity monitoringand personal healthcare. Advanced Materials, 2016, 28(22): 4338-4372.
    [4]
    Ma Y, Li H, Chen S, et al. Skin‐like electronics for perception and interaction: Materials, structural designs, and applications. Advanced Intelligent Systems, 2020: 2000108(1-17).
    [5]
    Hammock M L, Chortos A, Tee B C, et al. The evolution of electronic skin (e-skin): A brief history, design considerations, and recent progress. Advanced Materials, 2013, 25(42): 5997-6038.
    [6]
    Yang J C, Mun J, Kwon S Y, et al. Electronic skin: Recent progress and future prospects for skin-attachable devices for health monitoring, robotics, and prosthetics. Advanced Materials, 2019, 31(48): e1904765.
    [7]
    Chiauzzi E, Rodarte C, Dasmahapatra P. Patient-centered activity monitoring in the self-management of chronic health conditions. BMC Med., 2015, 13: 77(1-6).
    [8]
    Park S, Heo S W, Lee W, et al. Self-powered ultra-flexible electronics via nano-grating-patterned organic photovoltaics. Nature, 2018, 561(7724): 516-521.
    [9]
    Piwek L, Ellis D A, Andrews S, et al. The rise of consumer health wearables: Promises and barriers. PLoS Med, 2016, 13(2): e1001953.
    [10]
    Gambhir S S, Ge T J, Vermesh O, et al. Toward achieving precision health. Science Translational Medicine, 2018, 10(430): eaao3612.
    [11]
    Wang S, Xu J, Wang W, et al. Skin electronics from scalable fabrication of an intrinsically stretchable transistor array. Nature, 2018, 555(7694): 83-88.
    [12]
    Kim Y, Chortos A, Xu W T, et al. A bioinspired flexible organic artificial afferent nerve. Science, 2018, 360(6392): 998-1003.
    [13]
    Kang D, Pikhitsa P V, Choi Y W, et al. Ultrasensitive mechanical crack-based sensor inspired by the spider sensory system. Nature, 2014, 516(7530): 222-226.
    [14]
    Koo J, Amoli V, Kim S Y, et al. Low-power, deformable, dynamic multicolor electrochromic skin. Nano Energy, 2020, 78:105199.
    [15]
    Zhang C, Zhou Y, Han H, et al. Dopamine-triggered hydrogels with high transparency, self-adhesion, and thermoresponse as skinlike sensors. ACS Nano, 2021, 15(1): 1785-1794.
    [16]
    Rahman M A, Walia S, Naznee S, et al. Artificial somatosensors: Feedback receptors for electronic skins. Advanced Intelligent Systems, 2020, 2(11) :2000094.
    [17]
    Larson C, Peele B, Li S, et al. Highly stretchable electroluminescent skin for optical signaling and tactile sensing. Science, 2016, 351(6277): 1071-1074.
    [18]
    You I, Mackanic D G, Matsuhisa N, et al. Artificial multimodal receptors based on ion relaxation dynamics. Science, 2020, 370(6519): 961-965.
    [19]
    Ha M, Lim S, Cho S, et al. Skin-inspired hierarchical polymer architectures with gradient stiffness for spacer-free, ultrathin, and highly sensitive triboelectric sensors. ACS Nano, 2018, 12(4): 3964-3674.
    [20]
    Pang Y, Zhang K, Yang Z, et al. Epidermis microstructure inspired graphene pressure sensor with random distributed spinosum for high sensitivity and large linearity. ACS Nano, 2018, 12(3): 2346-2354.
    [21]
    Park J, Kim M, Lee Y, et al. Fingertip skin-inspired microstructured ferroelectric skins discriminate static/dynamic pressure and temperature stimuli. Science Advances, 2015, 1(9): e1500661.
    [22]
    Wang S, Oh J Y, Xu J, et al. Skin-inspired electronics: An emerging paradigm. Accounts of Chemical Research, 2018, 51(5): 1033-1045.
    [23]
    Gu L, Poddar S, Lin Y, et al. A biomimetic eye with a hemispherical perovskite nanowire array retina. Nature, 2020, 581(7808): 278-282.
    [24]
    Fuentes-Hernandez C, Chou W F, Khan T M, et al. Large-area low-noise flexible organic photodiodes for detecting faint visible light. Science, 2020, 370(6517): 698-701.
    [25]
    Wang C, Wang C, Huang Z, et al. Materials and structures toward soft electronics. Advanced Materials, 2018, 30(50): e1801368.
    [26]
    Matsuhisa N, Chen X, Bao Z, et al. Materials and structural designs of stretchable conductors. Chemical Society Reviews, 2019, 48(11): 2946-2966.
    [27]
    Drack M, Graz I, Sekitani T, et al. An imperceptible plastic electronic wrap. Advanced Materials, 2015, 27(1): 34-40.
    [28]
    Xu S, Zhang Y H, Jia L, et al. Soft microfluidic assemblies of sensors, circuits, and radios for the skin. Science, 2014, 344(6179): 70-74.
    [29]
    Graz I M, Cotton D P J, Robinson A, et al. Silicone substrate with in situ strain relief for stretchable thin-film transistors. Applied Physics Letters, 2011, 98(12): 124101.
    [30]
    Yuk H, Zhang T, Lin S, et al. Tough bonding of hydrogels to diverse non-porous surfaces. Nature Materials, 2016, 15(2): 190-196.
    [31]
    Bartlett M D, Fassler A, Kazem N, et al. Stretchable, high-k dielectric elastomers through liquid-metal inclusions. Advanced Materials, 2016, 28(19): 3726-3731.
    [32]
    Chen Y H, Lu S Y, Zhang S S, et al. Skin-like biosensor system via electrochemical channels for noninvasive blood glucose monitoring. Science Advances, 2017, 3(12): e1701629.
    [33]
    Pan L, Yu G, Zhai D, et al. Hierarchical nanostructured conducting polymer hydrogel with high electrochemical activity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2012, 109(24): 9287-9292.
    [34]
    Zhang C, Wu B, Zhou Y, et al. Mussel-inspired hydrogels: From design principles to promising applications. Chem Soc Rev, 2020, 49(11): 3605-3637.
    [35]
    Cai Y C, Shen J, Yang C W, et al. Mixed-dimensional MXene-hydrogel heterostructures for electronic skin sensors with ultrabroad working range. Science Advances, 2020, 6(48): eabb5367.
    [36]
    Zhao Z, Zhang K, Liu Y, et al. Highly stretchable, shape memory organohydrogels using phase-transition microinclusions. Advanced Materials, 2017, 29(33): 1701695.
    [37]
    Gao H, Zhao Z, Cai Y, et al. Adaptive and freeze-tolerant heteronetwork organohydrogels with enhanced mechanical stability over a wide temperature range. Nature Communications, 2017, 8: 15911.
    [38]
    Lee Y Y, Kang H Y, Gwon S H, et al. A strain-insensitive stretchable electronic conductor: PEDOT:PSS/Acrylamide organogels. Advanced Materials, 2016, 28(8): 1636-1643.
    [39]
    Dickey M D. Stretchable and soft electronics using liquid metals. Advanced Materials, 2017, 29(27): 1606425.
    [40]
    Lu Y, Hu Q Y, Lin Y L, et al. Transformable liquid-metal nanomedicine. Nature Communications, 2015, 6: 10066.
    [41]
    Kazem N, Hellebrekers T, Majidi C. Soft multifunctional composites and emulsions with liquid metals. Advanced Materials, 2017, 29(27): 1605985.
    [42]
    Khoshmanesh K, Tang S Y, Zhu J Y, et al. Liquid metal enabled microfluidics. Lab on a Chip, 2017, 17(6); 974-993.
    [43]
    Zhu S, So J H, Mays R, et al. Ultrastretchable fibers with metallic conductivity using a liquid metal alloy core. Advanced Functional Materials, 2013, 23(18): 2308-2314.
    [44]
    Shan W, Lu T, Majidi C. Soft-matter composites with electrically tunable elastic rigidity. Smart Materials and Structures, 2013, 22(8): 0850005.
    [45]
    Kramer R K, Majidi C, Wood R J. Masked deposition of gallium-indium alloys for liquid-embedded elastomer conductors. Advanced Functional Materials, 2013, 23(42): 5292-5296.
    [46]
    Guo R, Sun X, Yao S, et al. Semi‐liquid‐metal‐(Ni‐EGaIn)‐based ultraconformable electronic tattoo. Advanced Materials Technologies, 2019, 4(8): 1900183(1-11).
    [47]
    Inoue A, Yuk H, Lu B Y, et al. Strong adhesion of wet conducting polymers on diverse substrates. Science Advances, 2020, 6(12): eaay5394.
    [48]
    Root S E, Savagatrup S, Printz A D, et al. Mechanical properties of organic semiconductors for stretchable, highly flexible, and mechanically robust electronics. Chemical Reviews, 2017, 117(9): 6467-699.
    [49]
    Kim J, Lee J, You J, et al. Conductive polymers for next-generation energy storage systems: Recent progress and new functions. Materials Horizons, 2016, 3(6): 517-535.
    [50]
    De Izarra A, Park S, Lee J, et al. Ionic liquid designed for PEDOT:PSS conductivity enhancement. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2018, 140(16): 5375-5384.
    [51]
    Lipomi D J, Chong H, Vosgueritchian M, et al. Toward mechanically robust and intrinsically stretchable organic solar cells: Evolution of photovoltaic properties with tensile strain. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 2012, 107; 355-365.
    [52]
    Chen G, Rastak R, Wang Y, et al. Strain- and strain-rate-invariant conductance in a stretchable and compressible 3D conducting polymer foam. Matter, 2019, 1(1): 205-218.
    [53]
    Lee Y, Shin M, Thiyagarajan K, et al. Approaches to Stretchable Polymer Active Channels for Deformable Transistors. Macromolecules, 2016, 49(2); 433-444.
    [54]
    Xu J, Wang S H, Wang G J N, et al. Highly stretchable polymer semiconductor films through the nanoconfinement effect. Science, 2017, 355(6320): 59-64.
    [55]
    Rogers J A, Ghaffari R, Kim D H. Stretchable Bioelectronics for Medical Devices and Systems. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016.
    [56]
    He J, Nuzzo R G, Rogers J A. Inorganic materials and assembly techniques for flexible and stretchable electronics. Proceedings of the IEEE, 2015, 103(4): 619-632.
    [57]
    Choi S, Lee H, Ghaffari R, et al. Recent advances in flexible and stretchable bio-electronic devices integrated with nanomaterials. Advanced Materials, 2016, 28(22): 4203-4218.
    [58]
    Wang S H, Xu J, Wang W C, et al. Skin electronics from scalable fabrication of an intrinsically stretchable transistor array. Nature, 2018, 555(7694): 83-88.
    [59]
    Zhu L, Wang Y, Mei D, et al. Fully elastomeric fingerprint-shaped electronic skin based on tunable patterned graphene/silver nanocomposites. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 2020, 12(28): 31725-31737.
    [60]
    Lee J, Chung S, Song H, et al. Lateral-crack-free, buckled, inkjet-printed silver electrodes on highly pre-stretched elastomeric substrates. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 2013, 46(10): 105305(1-5).
    [61]
    Kaltenbrunner M, White M S, Glowacki E D, et al. Ultrathin and lightweight organic solar cells with high flexibility. Nature Communications, 2012, 3: 770.
    [62]
    Sun Y, Kumar V, Adesida I, et al. Buckled and wavy ribbons of GaAs for high-performance electronics on elastomeric substrates. Advanced Materials, 2006, 18(21): 2857-2862.
    [63]
    Yang S, Ng E, Lu N. Indium tin oxide (ITO) serpentine ribbons on soft substrates stretched beyond 100%. Extreme Mechanics Letters, 2015, 2: 37-45.
    [64]
    Xu L, Gutbrod S R, Ma Y, et al. Materials and fractal designs for 3D multifunctional integumentary membranes with capabilities in cardiac electrotherapy. Advanced Materials, 2015, 27(10): 1731-1737.
    [65]
    Hattori Y, Falgout L, Lee W, et al. Multifunctional skin-like electronics for quantitative, clinical monitoring of cutaneous wound healing. Advanced Healthcare Materials, 2014, 3(10): 1597-1607.
    [66]
    Rehman M U, Rojas J P. Optimization of compound serpentine–spiral structure for ultra-stretchable electronics. Extreme Mechanics Letters, 2017, 15: 44-50.
    [67]
    Qaiser N, Khan S M, Nour M, et al. Mechanical response of spiral interconnect arrays for highly stretchable electronics. Applied Physics Letters, 2017, 111(21): 214102.
    [68]
    Rojas J P, Arevalo A, Foulds I G, et al. Design and characterization of ultra-stretchable monolithic silicon fabric. Applied Physics Letters, 2014, 105(15): 154101.
    [69]
    Yoo J, Jeong S, Kim S, et al. A stretchable nanowire UV-Vis-NIR photodetector with high performance. Advanced Materials, 2015, 27(10): 1712-1717.
    [70]
    Lee J, Wu J, Shi M, et al. Stretchable GaAs photovoltaics with designs that enable high areal coverage. Advanced Materials, 2011, 23(8): 986-991.
    [71]
    Jang K I, Li K, Chung H U, et al. Self-assembled three dimensional network designs for soft electronics. Nature Communications, 2017, 8: 15894.
    [72]
    Liu Y, Yan Z, Lin Q, et al. Guided formation of 3D helical mesostructures by mechanical buckling: Analytical modeling and experimental validation. Adv Funct Mater, 2016, 26(17): 2909-2918.
    [73]
    Fan Z, Zhang Y, Ma Q, et al. A finite deformation model of planar serpentine interconnects for stretchable electronics. International Journal of Solids and Structures, 2016, 91: 46-54.
    [74]
    Tang R, Huang H, Tu H E, et al. Origami-enabled deformable silicon solar cells. Applied Physics Letters, 2014, 104(8): 083501.
    [75]
    Bertoldi K, Vitelli V, Christensen J, et al. Flexible mechanical metamaterials. Nature Reviews Materials, 2017, 2(11): 17066.
    [76]
    Callens S J P, Zadpoor A A. From flat sheets to curved geometries: Origami and kirigami approaches. Materials Today, 2018, 21(3): 241-264.
    [77]
    Tang Y C, Lin G J, Yang S, et al. Programmable Kiri-Kirigami metamaterials. Advanced Materials, 2017, 29(10): 1604262.
    [78]
    Shyu T C, Damasceno P F, Dodd P M, et al. A kirigami approach to engineering elasticity in nanocomposites through patterned defects. Nature Materials, 2015, 14(8): 785-789.
    [79]
    Dong Z L, Jiang C C, Cheng H H, et al. Facile fabrication of light, flexible and multifunctional graphene fibers. Advanced Materials, 2012, 24(14); 1856-1861.
    [80]
    Ghosh T. Stretch, wrap, and relax to smartness. Science, 2015, 349(6246): 382-383.
    [81]
    Zhao H, Hou L, Wu J X, et al. Fabrication of dual-side metal patterns onto textile substrates for wearable electronics by combining wax-dot printing with electroless plating. Journal of Materials Chemistry C, 2016, 4(29); 7156-7164.
    [82]
    Lee S S, Choi K H, Kim S H, et al. Wearable supercapacitors printed on garments. Advanced Functional Materials, 2018, 28(11): 1705571.
    [83]
    Matsuhisa N, Kaltenbrunner M, Yokota T, et al. Printable elastic conductors with a high conductivity for electronic textile applications. Nature Communications, 2015, 6: 7461.
    [84]
    Jost K, Stenger D, Perez C R, et al. Knitted and screen printed carbon-fiber supercapacitors for applications in wearable electronics. Energy & Environmental Science, 2013, 6(9); 2698-2705.
    [85]
    Huynh T P, Sonar P, Haick H. Advanced materials for use in soft self-healing devices. Advanced Materials, 2017, 29(19): 1604973.
    [86]
    Chang T, Panhwar F, Zhao G. Flourishing self-healing surface materials: Recent progresses and challenges. Advanced Materials Interfaces, 2020, 7(6): 1901959.
    [87]
    Burattini S, Greenland B W, Hayes W, et al. A supramolecular polymer based on tweezer-type π π stacking interactions: Molecular design for healability and enhanced toughness. Chemistry of Materials, 2011, 23(1): 6-8.
    [88]
    White S R, Sottos N R, Geubelle P H, et al. Autonomic healing of polymer composites. Nature, 2001, 409(6822): 794-797.
    [89]
    Li Y, Chen S, Wu M, et al. Polyelectrolyte multilayers impart healability to highly electrically conductive films. Advanced Materials, 2012, 24(33): 4578-4582.
    [90]
    Son D, Kang J, Vardoulis O, et al. An integrated self-healable electronic skin system fabricated via dynamic reconstruction of a nanostructured conducting network. Nature Nanotechnology, 2018, 13(11): 1057-1065.
    [91]
    Kim S M, Jeon H, Shin S H, et al. Superior toughness and fast self-healing at room temperature engineered by transparent elastomers. Advanced Materials, 2018, 30(1): 1705145.
    [92]
    Zhang Q, Niu S, Wang L, et al. An elastic autonomous self-healing capacitive sensor based on a dynamic dual crosslinked chemical system. Advanced Materials, 2018: e1801435.
    [93]
    Zheng R, Peng Z, Fu Y, et al. A novel conductive core–shell particle based on liquid metal for fabricating real‐time self‐repairing flexible circuits. Advanced Functional Materials, 2020, 30(15): 1910524.
    [94]
    Xun X, Zhang Z, Zhao X, et al. Highly robust and self-powered electronic skin based on tough conductive self-healing elastomer. ACS Nano, 2020, 14(7): 9066-9072.
    [95]
    Kang J, Son D, Wang G N, et al. Tough and water-insensitive self-healing elastomer for robust electronic skin. Advanced Materials, 2018, 30(13): e1706846.
    [96]
    Someya T, Amagai M. Toward a new generation of smart skins. Nature Biotechnology, 2019, 37(4): 382-388.
    [97]
    Choi S, Han S I, Jung D, et al. Highly conductive, stretchable and biocompatible Ag-Au core-sheath nanowire composite for wearable and implantable bioelectronics. Nature Nanotechnology, 2018, 13(11): 1048-1056.
    [98]
    Jiang W, Li H, Liu Z, et al. Fully bioabsorbable natural-materials-based triboelectric nanogenerators. Advanced Materials, 2018, 30(32): e1801895.
    [99]
    Huang Y, Chen Y, Fan X, et al. Wood derived composites for high sensitivity and wide linear-range pressure sensing. Small, 2018: e1801520.
    [100]
    Wang Q, Jian M, Wang C, et al. Carbonized silk nanofiber membrane for transparent and sensitive electronic skin. Advanced Functional Materials, 2017, 27(9): 1605657.
    [101]
    Lei Z, Zhu W, Zhang X, et al. Bio‐inspired ionic skin for theranostics. Advanced Functional Materials, 2020, 31(8): 2008020.
    [102]
    Luzuriaga M A, Berry D R, Reagan J C, et al. Biodegradable 3D printed polymer microneedles for transdermal drug delivery. Lab Chip, 2018, 18(8): 1223-1230.
    [103]
    Lei T, Guan M, Liu J, et al. Biocompatible and totally disintegrable semiconducting polymer for ultrathin and ultralightweight transient electronics. Proceedings of National Academy Science of USA, 2017, 114(20): 5107-5112.
    [104]
    Peng X, Dong K, Ye C Y, et al. A breathable, biodegradable, antibacterial, and self-powered electronic skin based on all-nanofiber triboelectric nanogenerators. Science Advances, 2020, 6(26): eaba9624.
    [105]
    Li Z, Feng H Q, Zheng Q, et al. Photothermally tunable biodegradation of implantable triboelectric nanogenerators for tissue repairing. Nano Energy, 2018, 54; 390-399.
    [106]
    Johansson R S, Flanagan J R. Coding and use of tactile signals from the fingertips in object manipulation tasks. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 2009, 10(5): 345-359.
    [107]
    Li Z, Qi X, Xu L, et al. Self-repairing, large linear working range shape memory carbon nanotubes/ethylene vinyl acetate fiber strain sensor for human movement monitoring. ACS Applied Materials Interfaces, 2020, 12(37): 42179-42192.
    [108]
    Pang Y, Zhang K N, Yang Z, et al. Epidermis microstructure inspired graphene pressure sensor with random distributed spinosum for high sensitivity and large linearity. Acs Nano, 2018, 12(3): 2346-2354.
    [109]
    Dahiya A S, Gil T, Thireau J, et al. 1D nanomaterial‐based highly stretchable strain sensors for human movement monitoring and human–robotic interactive systems. Advanced Electronic Materials, 2020, 6(10): 200547.
    [110]
    Kim J, Campbell A S, de Avila B E, et al. Wearable biosensors for healthcare monitoring. Nature Biotechnology, 2019, 37(4): 389-406.
    [111]
    Kumari P, Mathew L, Syal P. Increasing trend of wearables and multimodal interface for human activity monitoring: A review. Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 2017, 90: 298-307.
    [112]
    Cai G, Yang M, Xu Z, et al. Flexible and wearable strain sensing fabrics. Chemical Engineering Journal, 2017, 325: 396-403.
    [113]
    Afsarimanesh N, Nag A, Sarkar S, et al. A review on fabrication, characterization and implementation of wearable strain sensors. Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, 2020, 315: 112355.
    [114]
    Liu H, Li Q, Zhang S, et al. Electrically conductive polymer composites for smart flexible strain sensors: A critical review. Journal of Materials Chemistry C, 2018, 6(45): 12121-12141.
    [115]
    Wang S, Fang Y, He H, et al. Wearable stretchable dry and self‐adhesive strain sensors with conformal contact to skin for high‐quality motion monitoring. Advanced Functional Materials, 2020, 31(5): 2007495.
    [116]
    Mannsfeld S C, Tee B C, Stoltenberg R M, et al. Highly sensitive flexible pressure sensors with microstructured rubber dielectric layers. Nature Materials, 2010, 9(10): 859-864.
    [117]
    Wang X, Gu Y, Xiong Z, et al. Silk-molded flexible, ultrasensitive, and highly stable electronic skin for monitoring human physiological signals. Advanced Materials, 2014, 26(9): 1336-1342.
    [118]
    Schwartz G, Tee B C, Mei J, et al. Flexible polymer transistors with high pressure sensitivity for application in electronic skin and health monitoring. Nature Communications, 2013, 4: 1859.
    [119]
    Sekitani T, Zschieschang U, Klauk H, et al. Flexible organic transistors and circuits with extreme bending stability. Nature Materials, 2010, 9(12): 1015-122.
    [120]
    Pierre Claver U, Zhao G. Recent progress in flexible pressure sensors based electronic skin. Advanced Engineering Materials, 2021, 23(5): 2001187.
    [121]
    Jayathilaka W, Qi K, Qin Y, et al. Significance of nanomaterials in wearables: A review on wearable actuators and sensors. Advanced Materials, 2019, 31(7): e1805921.
    [122]
    Xu F, Li X, Shi Y, et al. Recent developments for flexible pressure sensors: A review. Micromachines (Basel), 2018, 9(11): 580.
    [123]
    Zang Y, Zhang F, Di C A, et al. Advances of flexible pressure sensors toward artificial intelligence and health care applications. Materials Horizons, 2015, 2(2): 140-156.
    [124]
    Sharma S, Chhetry A, Zhang S, et al. Hydrogen-bond-triggered hybrid nanofibrous membrane-based wearable pressure sensor with ultrahigh sensitivity over a broad pressure range. ACS Nano, 2021, 15(3): 4380-4393.
    [125]
    Trung T Q, Ramasundaram S, Hwang B U, et al. An all-elastomeric transparent and stretchable temperature sensor for body-attachable wearable electronics. Advanced Materials, 2016, 28(3): 502-509.
    [126]
    Chen Z, Zhang K Y, Tong X, et al. Phosphorescent polymeric thermometers for in vitro and in vivo temperature sensing with minimized background interference. Advanced Functional Materials, 2016, 26(24): 4386-4396.
    [127]
    Zhang Y, Webb R C, Luo H, et al. Theoretical and experimental studies of epidermal heat flux sensors for measurements of core body temperature. Advanced Healthcare Materials, 2016, 5(1): 119-127.
    [128]
    Takei K, Honda W, Harada S, et al. Toward flexible and wearable human-interactive health-monitoring devices. Advanced Healthcare Materials, 2015, 4(4): 487-500.
    [129]
    Wang C, Xia K, Zhang M, et al. An all-silk-derived dual-mode e-skin for simultaneous temperature-pressure detection. ACS Applied Materials Interfaces, 2017, 9(45): 39484-39492.
    [130]
    Shin J, Jeong B, Kim J, et al. Sensitive wearable temperature sensor with seamless monolithic integration. Advanced Materials, 2020, 32(2): e1905527.
    [131]
    Wilke K, Martin A, Terstegen L, et al. A short history of sweat gland biology. International Journal Cosmetic Science, 2007, 29(3): 169-179.
    [132]
    Sonner Z, Wilder E, Heikenfeld J, et al. The microfluidics of the eccrine sweat gland, including biomarker partitioning, transport, and biosensing implications. Biomicrofluidics, 2015, 9(3): 031301.
    [133]
    O'Sullivan B P, Freedman S D. Cystic fibrosis. The Lancet, 2009, 373(9678): 1891-1904.
    [134]
    Nyein H Y, Gao W, Shahpar Z, et al. A wearable electrochemical platform for noninvasive simultaneous monitoring of Ca(2+) and pH. ACS Nano, 2016, 10(7): 7216-7624.
    [135]
    Lee H, Choi T K, Lee Y B, et al. A graphene-based electrochemical device with thermoresponsive microneedles for diabetes monitoring and therapy. Nature Nanotechnology, 2016, 11(6): 566-572.
    [136]
    Gao W, Nyein H Y Y, Shahpar Z, et al. Wearable microsensor array for multiplexed heavy metal monitoring of body fluids. ACS Sensors, 2016, 1(7): 866-874.
    [137]
    Gao W, Emaminejad S, Nyein H Y Y, et al. Fully integrated wearable sensor arrays for multiplexed in situ perspiration analysis. Nature, 2016, 529(7587); 509-514.
    [138]
    Choi J, Chen S, Deng Y, et al. Skin-interfaced microfluidic systems that combine hard and soft materials for demanding applications in sweat capture and analysis. Advanced Healthcare Materials, 2021, 10(4): e2000722.
    [139]
    Koh A, Kang D, Xue Y, et al. A soft, wearable microfluidic device for the capture, storage, and colorimetric sensing of sweat. Science Translational Medicine, 2016, 8(366): 366ra165.
    [140]
    Jalbert I. Diet, nutraceuticals and the tear film. Experimental Eye Research, 2013, 117: 138-146.
    [141]
    Von Thun Und Hohenstein-Blaul N, Funke S, Grus F H. Tears as a source of biomarkers for ocular and systemic diseases. Experimental Eye Research, 2013, 117: 126-137.
    [142]
    Kudo H, Sawada T, Kazawa E, et al. A flexible and wearable glucose sensor based on functional polymers with soft-MEMS techniques. Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 2006, 22(4): 558-562.
    [143]
    Chu M X, Miyajima K, Takahashi D, et al. Soft contact lens biosensor for in situ monitoring of tear glucose as non-invasive blood sugar assessment. Talanta, 2011, 83(3): 960-965.
    [144]
    Kim J, Kim M, Lee M S, et al. Wearable smart sensor systems integrated on soft contact lenses for wireless ocular diagnostics. Nature Communications, 2017, 8: 14997.
    [145]
    Javaid M A, Ahmed A S, Durand R, et al. Saliva as a diagnostic tool for oral and systemic diseases. Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research, 2016, 6(1): 66-75.
    [146]
    Malon R S, Sadir S, Balakrishnan M, et al. Saliva-based biosensors: noninvasive monitoring tool for clinical diagnostics. Biomed Research International, 2014, 2014: 962903.
    [147]
    Stevens R C, Soelberg S D, Near S, et al. Detection of cortisol in saliva with a flow-filtered, portable surface plasmon resonance biosensor system. Analytical Chemistry, 2008, 80(17): 6747-6751.
  • 加载中

Catalog

    [1]
    Wortmann F, Flüchter K. Internet of things. Business & Information Systems Engineering, 2015, 57(3): 221-224.
    [2]
    Whitmore A, Agarwal A, Xu L D. The Internet of things—A survey of topics and trends. Information Systems Frontiers, 2014, 17(2): 261-274.
    [3]
    Trung T Q, Lee N E. Flexible and stretchable physical sensor integrated platforms for wearable human-activity monitoringand personal healthcare. Advanced Materials, 2016, 28(22): 4338-4372.
    [4]
    Ma Y, Li H, Chen S, et al. Skin‐like electronics for perception and interaction: Materials, structural designs, and applications. Advanced Intelligent Systems, 2020: 2000108(1-17).
    [5]
    Hammock M L, Chortos A, Tee B C, et al. The evolution of electronic skin (e-skin): A brief history, design considerations, and recent progress. Advanced Materials, 2013, 25(42): 5997-6038.
    [6]
    Yang J C, Mun J, Kwon S Y, et al. Electronic skin: Recent progress and future prospects for skin-attachable devices for health monitoring, robotics, and prosthetics. Advanced Materials, 2019, 31(48): e1904765.
    [7]
    Chiauzzi E, Rodarte C, Dasmahapatra P. Patient-centered activity monitoring in the self-management of chronic health conditions. BMC Med., 2015, 13: 77(1-6).
    [8]
    Park S, Heo S W, Lee W, et al. Self-powered ultra-flexible electronics via nano-grating-patterned organic photovoltaics. Nature, 2018, 561(7724): 516-521.
    [9]
    Piwek L, Ellis D A, Andrews S, et al. The rise of consumer health wearables: Promises and barriers. PLoS Med, 2016, 13(2): e1001953.
    [10]
    Gambhir S S, Ge T J, Vermesh O, et al. Toward achieving precision health. Science Translational Medicine, 2018, 10(430): eaao3612.
    [11]
    Wang S, Xu J, Wang W, et al. Skin electronics from scalable fabrication of an intrinsically stretchable transistor array. Nature, 2018, 555(7694): 83-88.
    [12]
    Kim Y, Chortos A, Xu W T, et al. A bioinspired flexible organic artificial afferent nerve. Science, 2018, 360(6392): 998-1003.
    [13]
    Kang D, Pikhitsa P V, Choi Y W, et al. Ultrasensitive mechanical crack-based sensor inspired by the spider sensory system. Nature, 2014, 516(7530): 222-226.
    [14]
    Koo J, Amoli V, Kim S Y, et al. Low-power, deformable, dynamic multicolor electrochromic skin. Nano Energy, 2020, 78:105199.
    [15]
    Zhang C, Zhou Y, Han H, et al. Dopamine-triggered hydrogels with high transparency, self-adhesion, and thermoresponse as skinlike sensors. ACS Nano, 2021, 15(1): 1785-1794.
    [16]
    Rahman M A, Walia S, Naznee S, et al. Artificial somatosensors: Feedback receptors for electronic skins. Advanced Intelligent Systems, 2020, 2(11) :2000094.
    [17]
    Larson C, Peele B, Li S, et al. Highly stretchable electroluminescent skin for optical signaling and tactile sensing. Science, 2016, 351(6277): 1071-1074.
    [18]
    You I, Mackanic D G, Matsuhisa N, et al. Artificial multimodal receptors based on ion relaxation dynamics. Science, 2020, 370(6519): 961-965.
    [19]
    Ha M, Lim S, Cho S, et al. Skin-inspired hierarchical polymer architectures with gradient stiffness for spacer-free, ultrathin, and highly sensitive triboelectric sensors. ACS Nano, 2018, 12(4): 3964-3674.
    [20]
    Pang Y, Zhang K, Yang Z, et al. Epidermis microstructure inspired graphene pressure sensor with random distributed spinosum for high sensitivity and large linearity. ACS Nano, 2018, 12(3): 2346-2354.
    [21]
    Park J, Kim M, Lee Y, et al. Fingertip skin-inspired microstructured ferroelectric skins discriminate static/dynamic pressure and temperature stimuli. Science Advances, 2015, 1(9): e1500661.
    [22]
    Wang S, Oh J Y, Xu J, et al. Skin-inspired electronics: An emerging paradigm. Accounts of Chemical Research, 2018, 51(5): 1033-1045.
    [23]
    Gu L, Poddar S, Lin Y, et al. A biomimetic eye with a hemispherical perovskite nanowire array retina. Nature, 2020, 581(7808): 278-282.
    [24]
    Fuentes-Hernandez C, Chou W F, Khan T M, et al. Large-area low-noise flexible organic photodiodes for detecting faint visible light. Science, 2020, 370(6517): 698-701.
    [25]
    Wang C, Wang C, Huang Z, et al. Materials and structures toward soft electronics. Advanced Materials, 2018, 30(50): e1801368.
    [26]
    Matsuhisa N, Chen X, Bao Z, et al. Materials and structural designs of stretchable conductors. Chemical Society Reviews, 2019, 48(11): 2946-2966.
    [27]
    Drack M, Graz I, Sekitani T, et al. An imperceptible plastic electronic wrap. Advanced Materials, 2015, 27(1): 34-40.
    [28]
    Xu S, Zhang Y H, Jia L, et al. Soft microfluidic assemblies of sensors, circuits, and radios for the skin. Science, 2014, 344(6179): 70-74.
    [29]
    Graz I M, Cotton D P J, Robinson A, et al. Silicone substrate with in situ strain relief for stretchable thin-film transistors. Applied Physics Letters, 2011, 98(12): 124101.
    [30]
    Yuk H, Zhang T, Lin S, et al. Tough bonding of hydrogels to diverse non-porous surfaces. Nature Materials, 2016, 15(2): 190-196.
    [31]
    Bartlett M D, Fassler A, Kazem N, et al. Stretchable, high-k dielectric elastomers through liquid-metal inclusions. Advanced Materials, 2016, 28(19): 3726-3731.
    [32]
    Chen Y H, Lu S Y, Zhang S S, et al. Skin-like biosensor system via electrochemical channels for noninvasive blood glucose monitoring. Science Advances, 2017, 3(12): e1701629.
    [33]
    Pan L, Yu G, Zhai D, et al. Hierarchical nanostructured conducting polymer hydrogel with high electrochemical activity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2012, 109(24): 9287-9292.
    [34]
    Zhang C, Wu B, Zhou Y, et al. Mussel-inspired hydrogels: From design principles to promising applications. Chem Soc Rev, 2020, 49(11): 3605-3637.
    [35]
    Cai Y C, Shen J, Yang C W, et al. Mixed-dimensional MXene-hydrogel heterostructures for electronic skin sensors with ultrabroad working range. Science Advances, 2020, 6(48): eabb5367.
    [36]
    Zhao Z, Zhang K, Liu Y, et al. Highly stretchable, shape memory organohydrogels using phase-transition microinclusions. Advanced Materials, 2017, 29(33): 1701695.
    [37]
    Gao H, Zhao Z, Cai Y, et al. Adaptive and freeze-tolerant heteronetwork organohydrogels with enhanced mechanical stability over a wide temperature range. Nature Communications, 2017, 8: 15911.
    [38]
    Lee Y Y, Kang H Y, Gwon S H, et al. A strain-insensitive stretchable electronic conductor: PEDOT:PSS/Acrylamide organogels. Advanced Materials, 2016, 28(8): 1636-1643.
    [39]
    Dickey M D. Stretchable and soft electronics using liquid metals. Advanced Materials, 2017, 29(27): 1606425.
    [40]
    Lu Y, Hu Q Y, Lin Y L, et al. Transformable liquid-metal nanomedicine. Nature Communications, 2015, 6: 10066.
    [41]
    Kazem N, Hellebrekers T, Majidi C. Soft multifunctional composites and emulsions with liquid metals. Advanced Materials, 2017, 29(27): 1605985.
    [42]
    Khoshmanesh K, Tang S Y, Zhu J Y, et al. Liquid metal enabled microfluidics. Lab on a Chip, 2017, 17(6); 974-993.
    [43]
    Zhu S, So J H, Mays R, et al. Ultrastretchable fibers with metallic conductivity using a liquid metal alloy core. Advanced Functional Materials, 2013, 23(18): 2308-2314.
    [44]
    Shan W, Lu T, Majidi C. Soft-matter composites with electrically tunable elastic rigidity. Smart Materials and Structures, 2013, 22(8): 0850005.
    [45]
    Kramer R K, Majidi C, Wood R J. Masked deposition of gallium-indium alloys for liquid-embedded elastomer conductors. Advanced Functional Materials, 2013, 23(42): 5292-5296.
    [46]
    Guo R, Sun X, Yao S, et al. Semi‐liquid‐metal‐(Ni‐EGaIn)‐based ultraconformable electronic tattoo. Advanced Materials Technologies, 2019, 4(8): 1900183(1-11).
    [47]
    Inoue A, Yuk H, Lu B Y, et al. Strong adhesion of wet conducting polymers on diverse substrates. Science Advances, 2020, 6(12): eaay5394.
    [48]
    Root S E, Savagatrup S, Printz A D, et al. Mechanical properties of organic semiconductors for stretchable, highly flexible, and mechanically robust electronics. Chemical Reviews, 2017, 117(9): 6467-699.
    [49]
    Kim J, Lee J, You J, et al. Conductive polymers for next-generation energy storage systems: Recent progress and new functions. Materials Horizons, 2016, 3(6): 517-535.
    [50]
    De Izarra A, Park S, Lee J, et al. Ionic liquid designed for PEDOT:PSS conductivity enhancement. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2018, 140(16): 5375-5384.
    [51]
    Lipomi D J, Chong H, Vosgueritchian M, et al. Toward mechanically robust and intrinsically stretchable organic solar cells: Evolution of photovoltaic properties with tensile strain. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 2012, 107; 355-365.
    [52]
    Chen G, Rastak R, Wang Y, et al. Strain- and strain-rate-invariant conductance in a stretchable and compressible 3D conducting polymer foam. Matter, 2019, 1(1): 205-218.
    [53]
    Lee Y, Shin M, Thiyagarajan K, et al. Approaches to Stretchable Polymer Active Channels for Deformable Transistors. Macromolecules, 2016, 49(2); 433-444.
    [54]
    Xu J, Wang S H, Wang G J N, et al. Highly stretchable polymer semiconductor films through the nanoconfinement effect. Science, 2017, 355(6320): 59-64.
    [55]
    Rogers J A, Ghaffari R, Kim D H. Stretchable Bioelectronics for Medical Devices and Systems. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016.
    [56]
    He J, Nuzzo R G, Rogers J A. Inorganic materials and assembly techniques for flexible and stretchable electronics. Proceedings of the IEEE, 2015, 103(4): 619-632.
    [57]
    Choi S, Lee H, Ghaffari R, et al. Recent advances in flexible and stretchable bio-electronic devices integrated with nanomaterials. Advanced Materials, 2016, 28(22): 4203-4218.
    [58]
    Wang S H, Xu J, Wang W C, et al. Skin electronics from scalable fabrication of an intrinsically stretchable transistor array. Nature, 2018, 555(7694): 83-88.
    [59]
    Zhu L, Wang Y, Mei D, et al. Fully elastomeric fingerprint-shaped electronic skin based on tunable patterned graphene/silver nanocomposites. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 2020, 12(28): 31725-31737.
    [60]
    Lee J, Chung S, Song H, et al. Lateral-crack-free, buckled, inkjet-printed silver electrodes on highly pre-stretched elastomeric substrates. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 2013, 46(10): 105305(1-5).
    [61]
    Kaltenbrunner M, White M S, Glowacki E D, et al. Ultrathin and lightweight organic solar cells with high flexibility. Nature Communications, 2012, 3: 770.
    [62]
    Sun Y, Kumar V, Adesida I, et al. Buckled and wavy ribbons of GaAs for high-performance electronics on elastomeric substrates. Advanced Materials, 2006, 18(21): 2857-2862.
    [63]
    Yang S, Ng E, Lu N. Indium tin oxide (ITO) serpentine ribbons on soft substrates stretched beyond 100%. Extreme Mechanics Letters, 2015, 2: 37-45.
    [64]
    Xu L, Gutbrod S R, Ma Y, et al. Materials and fractal designs for 3D multifunctional integumentary membranes with capabilities in cardiac electrotherapy. Advanced Materials, 2015, 27(10): 1731-1737.
    [65]
    Hattori Y, Falgout L, Lee W, et al. Multifunctional skin-like electronics for quantitative, clinical monitoring of cutaneous wound healing. Advanced Healthcare Materials, 2014, 3(10): 1597-1607.
    [66]
    Rehman M U, Rojas J P. Optimization of compound serpentine–spiral structure for ultra-stretchable electronics. Extreme Mechanics Letters, 2017, 15: 44-50.
    [67]
    Qaiser N, Khan S M, Nour M, et al. Mechanical response of spiral interconnect arrays for highly stretchable electronics. Applied Physics Letters, 2017, 111(21): 214102.
    [68]
    Rojas J P, Arevalo A, Foulds I G, et al. Design and characterization of ultra-stretchable monolithic silicon fabric. Applied Physics Letters, 2014, 105(15): 154101.
    [69]
    Yoo J, Jeong S, Kim S, et al. A stretchable nanowire UV-Vis-NIR photodetector with high performance. Advanced Materials, 2015, 27(10): 1712-1717.
    [70]
    Lee J, Wu J, Shi M, et al. Stretchable GaAs photovoltaics with designs that enable high areal coverage. Advanced Materials, 2011, 23(8): 986-991.
    [71]
    Jang K I, Li K, Chung H U, et al. Self-assembled three dimensional network designs for soft electronics. Nature Communications, 2017, 8: 15894.
    [72]
    Liu Y, Yan Z, Lin Q, et al. Guided formation of 3D helical mesostructures by mechanical buckling: Analytical modeling and experimental validation. Adv Funct Mater, 2016, 26(17): 2909-2918.
    [73]
    Fan Z, Zhang Y, Ma Q, et al. A finite deformation model of planar serpentine interconnects for stretchable electronics. International Journal of Solids and Structures, 2016, 91: 46-54.
    [74]
    Tang R, Huang H, Tu H E, et al. Origami-enabled deformable silicon solar cells. Applied Physics Letters, 2014, 104(8): 083501.
    [75]
    Bertoldi K, Vitelli V, Christensen J, et al. Flexible mechanical metamaterials. Nature Reviews Materials, 2017, 2(11): 17066.
    [76]
    Callens S J P, Zadpoor A A. From flat sheets to curved geometries: Origami and kirigami approaches. Materials Today, 2018, 21(3): 241-264.
    [77]
    Tang Y C, Lin G J, Yang S, et al. Programmable Kiri-Kirigami metamaterials. Advanced Materials, 2017, 29(10): 1604262.
    [78]
    Shyu T C, Damasceno P F, Dodd P M, et al. A kirigami approach to engineering elasticity in nanocomposites through patterned defects. Nature Materials, 2015, 14(8): 785-789.
    [79]
    Dong Z L, Jiang C C, Cheng H H, et al. Facile fabrication of light, flexible and multifunctional graphene fibers. Advanced Materials, 2012, 24(14); 1856-1861.
    [80]
    Ghosh T. Stretch, wrap, and relax to smartness. Science, 2015, 349(6246): 382-383.
    [81]
    Zhao H, Hou L, Wu J X, et al. Fabrication of dual-side metal patterns onto textile substrates for wearable electronics by combining wax-dot printing with electroless plating. Journal of Materials Chemistry C, 2016, 4(29); 7156-7164.
    [82]
    Lee S S, Choi K H, Kim S H, et al. Wearable supercapacitors printed on garments. Advanced Functional Materials, 2018, 28(11): 1705571.
    [83]
    Matsuhisa N, Kaltenbrunner M, Yokota T, et al. Printable elastic conductors with a high conductivity for electronic textile applications. Nature Communications, 2015, 6: 7461.
    [84]
    Jost K, Stenger D, Perez C R, et al. Knitted and screen printed carbon-fiber supercapacitors for applications in wearable electronics. Energy & Environmental Science, 2013, 6(9); 2698-2705.
    [85]
    Huynh T P, Sonar P, Haick H. Advanced materials for use in soft self-healing devices. Advanced Materials, 2017, 29(19): 1604973.
    [86]
    Chang T, Panhwar F, Zhao G. Flourishing self-healing surface materials: Recent progresses and challenges. Advanced Materials Interfaces, 2020, 7(6): 1901959.
    [87]
    Burattini S, Greenland B W, Hayes W, et al. A supramolecular polymer based on tweezer-type π π stacking interactions: Molecular design for healability and enhanced toughness. Chemistry of Materials, 2011, 23(1): 6-8.
    [88]
    White S R, Sottos N R, Geubelle P H, et al. Autonomic healing of polymer composites. Nature, 2001, 409(6822): 794-797.
    [89]
    Li Y, Chen S, Wu M, et al. Polyelectrolyte multilayers impart healability to highly electrically conductive films. Advanced Materials, 2012, 24(33): 4578-4582.
    [90]
    Son D, Kang J, Vardoulis O, et al. An integrated self-healable electronic skin system fabricated via dynamic reconstruction of a nanostructured conducting network. Nature Nanotechnology, 2018, 13(11): 1057-1065.
    [91]
    Kim S M, Jeon H, Shin S H, et al. Superior toughness and fast self-healing at room temperature engineered by transparent elastomers. Advanced Materials, 2018, 30(1): 1705145.
    [92]
    Zhang Q, Niu S, Wang L, et al. An elastic autonomous self-healing capacitive sensor based on a dynamic dual crosslinked chemical system. Advanced Materials, 2018: e1801435.
    [93]
    Zheng R, Peng Z, Fu Y, et al. A novel conductive core–shell particle based on liquid metal for fabricating real‐time self‐repairing flexible circuits. Advanced Functional Materials, 2020, 30(15): 1910524.
    [94]
    Xun X, Zhang Z, Zhao X, et al. Highly robust and self-powered electronic skin based on tough conductive self-healing elastomer. ACS Nano, 2020, 14(7): 9066-9072.
    [95]
    Kang J, Son D, Wang G N, et al. Tough and water-insensitive self-healing elastomer for robust electronic skin. Advanced Materials, 2018, 30(13): e1706846.
    [96]
    Someya T, Amagai M. Toward a new generation of smart skins. Nature Biotechnology, 2019, 37(4): 382-388.
    [97]
    Choi S, Han S I, Jung D, et al. Highly conductive, stretchable and biocompatible Ag-Au core-sheath nanowire composite for wearable and implantable bioelectronics. Nature Nanotechnology, 2018, 13(11): 1048-1056.
    [98]
    Jiang W, Li H, Liu Z, et al. Fully bioabsorbable natural-materials-based triboelectric nanogenerators. Advanced Materials, 2018, 30(32): e1801895.
    [99]
    Huang Y, Chen Y, Fan X, et al. Wood derived composites for high sensitivity and wide linear-range pressure sensing. Small, 2018: e1801520.
    [100]
    Wang Q, Jian M, Wang C, et al. Carbonized silk nanofiber membrane for transparent and sensitive electronic skin. Advanced Functional Materials, 2017, 27(9): 1605657.
    [101]
    Lei Z, Zhu W, Zhang X, et al. Bio‐inspired ionic skin for theranostics. Advanced Functional Materials, 2020, 31(8): 2008020.
    [102]
    Luzuriaga M A, Berry D R, Reagan J C, et al. Biodegradable 3D printed polymer microneedles for transdermal drug delivery. Lab Chip, 2018, 18(8): 1223-1230.
    [103]
    Lei T, Guan M, Liu J, et al. Biocompatible and totally disintegrable semiconducting polymer for ultrathin and ultralightweight transient electronics. Proceedings of National Academy Science of USA, 2017, 114(20): 5107-5112.
    [104]
    Peng X, Dong K, Ye C Y, et al. A breathable, biodegradable, antibacterial, and self-powered electronic skin based on all-nanofiber triboelectric nanogenerators. Science Advances, 2020, 6(26): eaba9624.
    [105]
    Li Z, Feng H Q, Zheng Q, et al. Photothermally tunable biodegradation of implantable triboelectric nanogenerators for tissue repairing. Nano Energy, 2018, 54; 390-399.
    [106]
    Johansson R S, Flanagan J R. Coding and use of tactile signals from the fingertips in object manipulation tasks. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 2009, 10(5): 345-359.
    [107]
    Li Z, Qi X, Xu L, et al. Self-repairing, large linear working range shape memory carbon nanotubes/ethylene vinyl acetate fiber strain sensor for human movement monitoring. ACS Applied Materials Interfaces, 2020, 12(37): 42179-42192.
    [108]
    Pang Y, Zhang K N, Yang Z, et al. Epidermis microstructure inspired graphene pressure sensor with random distributed spinosum for high sensitivity and large linearity. Acs Nano, 2018, 12(3): 2346-2354.
    [109]
    Dahiya A S, Gil T, Thireau J, et al. 1D nanomaterial‐based highly stretchable strain sensors for human movement monitoring and human–robotic interactive systems. Advanced Electronic Materials, 2020, 6(10): 200547.
    [110]
    Kim J, Campbell A S, de Avila B E, et al. Wearable biosensors for healthcare monitoring. Nature Biotechnology, 2019, 37(4): 389-406.
    [111]
    Kumari P, Mathew L, Syal P. Increasing trend of wearables and multimodal interface for human activity monitoring: A review. Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 2017, 90: 298-307.
    [112]
    Cai G, Yang M, Xu Z, et al. Flexible and wearable strain sensing fabrics. Chemical Engineering Journal, 2017, 325: 396-403.
    [113]
    Afsarimanesh N, Nag A, Sarkar S, et al. A review on fabrication, characterization and implementation of wearable strain sensors. Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, 2020, 315: 112355.
    [114]
    Liu H, Li Q, Zhang S, et al. Electrically conductive polymer composites for smart flexible strain sensors: A critical review. Journal of Materials Chemistry C, 2018, 6(45): 12121-12141.
    [115]
    Wang S, Fang Y, He H, et al. Wearable stretchable dry and self‐adhesive strain sensors with conformal contact to skin for high‐quality motion monitoring. Advanced Functional Materials, 2020, 31(5): 2007495.
    [116]
    Mannsfeld S C, Tee B C, Stoltenberg R M, et al. Highly sensitive flexible pressure sensors with microstructured rubber dielectric layers. Nature Materials, 2010, 9(10): 859-864.
    [117]
    Wang X, Gu Y, Xiong Z, et al. Silk-molded flexible, ultrasensitive, and highly stable electronic skin for monitoring human physiological signals. Advanced Materials, 2014, 26(9): 1336-1342.
    [118]
    Schwartz G, Tee B C, Mei J, et al. Flexible polymer transistors with high pressure sensitivity for application in electronic skin and health monitoring. Nature Communications, 2013, 4: 1859.
    [119]
    Sekitani T, Zschieschang U, Klauk H, et al. Flexible organic transistors and circuits with extreme bending stability. Nature Materials, 2010, 9(12): 1015-122.
    [120]
    Pierre Claver U, Zhao G. Recent progress in flexible pressure sensors based electronic skin. Advanced Engineering Materials, 2021, 23(5): 2001187.
    [121]
    Jayathilaka W, Qi K, Qin Y, et al. Significance of nanomaterials in wearables: A review on wearable actuators and sensors. Advanced Materials, 2019, 31(7): e1805921.
    [122]
    Xu F, Li X, Shi Y, et al. Recent developments for flexible pressure sensors: A review. Micromachines (Basel), 2018, 9(11): 580.
    [123]
    Zang Y, Zhang F, Di C A, et al. Advances of flexible pressure sensors toward artificial intelligence and health care applications. Materials Horizons, 2015, 2(2): 140-156.
    [124]
    Sharma S, Chhetry A, Zhang S, et al. Hydrogen-bond-triggered hybrid nanofibrous membrane-based wearable pressure sensor with ultrahigh sensitivity over a broad pressure range. ACS Nano, 2021, 15(3): 4380-4393.
    [125]
    Trung T Q, Ramasundaram S, Hwang B U, et al. An all-elastomeric transparent and stretchable temperature sensor for body-attachable wearable electronics. Advanced Materials, 2016, 28(3): 502-509.
    [126]
    Chen Z, Zhang K Y, Tong X, et al. Phosphorescent polymeric thermometers for in vitro and in vivo temperature sensing with minimized background interference. Advanced Functional Materials, 2016, 26(24): 4386-4396.
    [127]
    Zhang Y, Webb R C, Luo H, et al. Theoretical and experimental studies of epidermal heat flux sensors for measurements of core body temperature. Advanced Healthcare Materials, 2016, 5(1): 119-127.
    [128]
    Takei K, Honda W, Harada S, et al. Toward flexible and wearable human-interactive health-monitoring devices. Advanced Healthcare Materials, 2015, 4(4): 487-500.
    [129]
    Wang C, Xia K, Zhang M, et al. An all-silk-derived dual-mode e-skin for simultaneous temperature-pressure detection. ACS Applied Materials Interfaces, 2017, 9(45): 39484-39492.
    [130]
    Shin J, Jeong B, Kim J, et al. Sensitive wearable temperature sensor with seamless monolithic integration. Advanced Materials, 2020, 32(2): e1905527.
    [131]
    Wilke K, Martin A, Terstegen L, et al. A short history of sweat gland biology. International Journal Cosmetic Science, 2007, 29(3): 169-179.
    [132]
    Sonner Z, Wilder E, Heikenfeld J, et al. The microfluidics of the eccrine sweat gland, including biomarker partitioning, transport, and biosensing implications. Biomicrofluidics, 2015, 9(3): 031301.
    [133]
    O'Sullivan B P, Freedman S D. Cystic fibrosis. The Lancet, 2009, 373(9678): 1891-1904.
    [134]
    Nyein H Y, Gao W, Shahpar Z, et al. A wearable electrochemical platform for noninvasive simultaneous monitoring of Ca(2+) and pH. ACS Nano, 2016, 10(7): 7216-7624.
    [135]
    Lee H, Choi T K, Lee Y B, et al. A graphene-based electrochemical device with thermoresponsive microneedles for diabetes monitoring and therapy. Nature Nanotechnology, 2016, 11(6): 566-572.
    [136]
    Gao W, Nyein H Y Y, Shahpar Z, et al. Wearable microsensor array for multiplexed heavy metal monitoring of body fluids. ACS Sensors, 2016, 1(7): 866-874.
    [137]
    Gao W, Emaminejad S, Nyein H Y Y, et al. Fully integrated wearable sensor arrays for multiplexed in situ perspiration analysis. Nature, 2016, 529(7587); 509-514.
    [138]
    Choi J, Chen S, Deng Y, et al. Skin-interfaced microfluidic systems that combine hard and soft materials for demanding applications in sweat capture and analysis. Advanced Healthcare Materials, 2021, 10(4): e2000722.
    [139]
    Koh A, Kang D, Xue Y, et al. A soft, wearable microfluidic device for the capture, storage, and colorimetric sensing of sweat. Science Translational Medicine, 2016, 8(366): 366ra165.
    [140]
    Jalbert I. Diet, nutraceuticals and the tear film. Experimental Eye Research, 2013, 117: 138-146.
    [141]
    Von Thun Und Hohenstein-Blaul N, Funke S, Grus F H. Tears as a source of biomarkers for ocular and systemic diseases. Experimental Eye Research, 2013, 117: 126-137.
    [142]
    Kudo H, Sawada T, Kazawa E, et al. A flexible and wearable glucose sensor based on functional polymers with soft-MEMS techniques. Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 2006, 22(4): 558-562.
    [143]
    Chu M X, Miyajima K, Takahashi D, et al. Soft contact lens biosensor for in situ monitoring of tear glucose as non-invasive blood sugar assessment. Talanta, 2011, 83(3): 960-965.
    [144]
    Kim J, Kim M, Lee M S, et al. Wearable smart sensor systems integrated on soft contact lenses for wireless ocular diagnostics. Nature Communications, 2017, 8: 14997.
    [145]
    Javaid M A, Ahmed A S, Durand R, et al. Saliva as a diagnostic tool for oral and systemic diseases. Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research, 2016, 6(1): 66-75.
    [146]
    Malon R S, Sadir S, Balakrishnan M, et al. Saliva-based biosensors: noninvasive monitoring tool for clinical diagnostics. Biomed Research International, 2014, 2014: 962903.
    [147]
    Stevens R C, Soelberg S D, Near S, et al. Detection of cortisol in saliva with a flow-filtered, portable surface plasmon resonance biosensor system. Analytical Chemistry, 2008, 80(17): 6747-6751.

    Article Metrics

    Article views (560) PDF downloads(404)
    Proportional views

    /

    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint
    Return
    Return