ISSN 0253-2778

CN 34-1054/N

Open AccessOpen Access JUSTC Original Paper

Research on smoke entrainment rate of urban highway tunnel near the fire source area

Cite this:
https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.0253-2778.2019.04.010
  • Received Date: 11 April 2018
  • Accepted Date: 30 July 2018
  • Rev Recd Date: 30 July 2018
  • Publish Date: 30 April 2019
  • The mass entrainment rate is a key factor that can not be ignored when preventing and controlling flue gas. The full-scale urban highway tunnel was taken as the research object, and dimensionless analysis and numerical simulation methods were used to investigate the influence of fire power, effective ceiling height, fire source lateral position and tunnel width on the mass entrainment rate of flue gas. Through the analysis of the suitability of the rolling suction model proposed by previous researchers and the variation of the entrainment rate under the 20 simulation conditions, the results show that for the large and small power sources with different entrainment mechanisms, the entrainment models proposed by predecessors at the stage II and III have certain limitations. The mass entrainment rate in the near-field area of the fire source was measured by the hood method. And the mass flow rate of the stage II and III sections was calculated by the discretization method with the accuracy of the results being improved. Based on the dimensional analysis method, the dimensionless smoke entrainment model was constructed, which is associated with the key factors, such as the fire power, the tunnel width, the fire source position, and the effective ceiling height. And the quantitative relation formulas of gas mass entrainment rate in stage II and III were obtained by numerical simulation and data fitting.
    The mass entrainment rate is a key factor that can not be ignored when preventing and controlling flue gas. The full-scale urban highway tunnel was taken as the research object, and dimensionless analysis and numerical simulation methods were used to investigate the influence of fire power, effective ceiling height, fire source lateral position and tunnel width on the mass entrainment rate of flue gas. Through the analysis of the suitability of the rolling suction model proposed by previous researchers and the variation of the entrainment rate under the 20 simulation conditions, the results show that for the large and small power sources with different entrainment mechanisms, the entrainment models proposed by predecessors at the stage II and III have certain limitations. The mass entrainment rate in the near-field area of the fire source was measured by the hood method. And the mass flow rate of the stage II and III sections was calculated by the discretization method with the accuracy of the results being improved. Based on the dimensional analysis method, the dimensionless smoke entrainment model was constructed, which is associated with the key factors, such as the fire power, the tunnel width, the fire source position, and the effective ceiling height. And the quantitative relation formulas of gas mass entrainment rate in stage II and III were obtained by numerical simulation and data fitting.
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  • [1]
    HU L H, ZHOU J W, HUO R, et al. Confinement of fire-induced smoke and carbon monoxide transportation by air curtain in channels[J]. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2008,156: 327-334.
    [2]
    ZUKOSKI E E, KUBOTA T, CETEGEN B. Entrainment in fire plumes[J]. Fire Safety Journal, 1981, 3(3): 107-121.
    [3]
    CETEGEN B M, ZUKOSKI E E, KUBOTA T. Entrainment in the near and far field of fire plumes[J]. Combustion Science and Technology, 1984, 39: 305-331.
    [4]
    ZUKOSKI E E. Properties of fire plumes[M]// Combustion Fundamentals of Fire. London: Academic Press, 1995: 101-219.
    [5]
    MCCAFFREY B J. Purely Buoyant Diffusion Flames: Some Experimental Results[R]. Washington D.C. Nation Bureau of Standards, 1979: NBSIR 79-1910.
    [6]
    MCCAFFREY B J. Momentum implications for buoyant diffusion flames[J]. Combustion & Flame, 1983, 52(2): 149-167.
    [7]
    HESKESTAD G. Dynamics of the fire plume[J]. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences, 1998, 356(1748): 2815-2833.
    [8]
    HINKLEY P L, WRAIGHT H G H, THEOBALD C R. The contribution of flames under ceilings to fire spread in compartments[J]. Fire Safety Journal, 1984, 7(3): 227-242.
    [9]
    王浩波, 纪杰, 钟委, 等. 长通道内烟气一维水平蔓延阶段质量卷吸系数的实验研究[J]. 工程力学, 2009, 26(11): 247-251.
    WANG Haobo, JI Jie, ZHONG Wei, et al. Experimental study on air entrainment coefficient during one-dimensional horizontal movement of fire-induced smoke in long channels[J]. Engineering Mechanics, 2009, 26(11): 247-251.
    [10]
    HU L H, PENG W, HUO R. Critical wind velocity for arresting upwind gas and smoke dispersion induced by near-wall fire in a road tunnel[J]. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2008, 150(1): 68-75.
    [11]
    KUNSCH J P. Simple model for control of fire gases in a ventilated tunnel[J]. Fire Safety Journal, 2002, 37(1): 67-81.
    [12]
    纪杰, 霍然, 张英, 等. 长通道内烟气层水平蔓延阶段的质量卷吸速率实验研究[J]. 中国科学技术大学学报, 2009, 39(7): 738-742.
    JI Jie, HUO Ran, ZHANG Ying, et al.Experimental study on the entrainment mass flow rate across the smoke layer interface during horizontal spread in a long channel[J]. Journal of University of Science and Technology of China, 2009, 39(7): 738-742.
    [13]
    纪杰. 地铁站火灾烟气流动及通风控制模式研究[D]. 合肥: 中国科学技术大学, 2008.
    [14]
    张少刚. 地铁列车对区间隧道火灾逆流烟气输运特性影响的研究[D]. 合肥: 中国科学技术大学, 2017.
    [15]
    李垣志,牛国庆,张轩轩.城市公路隧道近火源区长度的研究[J]. 中国安全生产科学技术, 2017, 13(12): 43-51.
    LI Yuanzhi, NIU Guoqing, ZHANG Xuanxuan. Research on length of area near fire source in urban highway tunnel fire[J]. Journal of Safety Science and Technology, 2017, 13(12): 43-51.
    [16]
    周魁斌. 火旋风的燃烧规律及其火焰移动机制研究[D]. 合肥: 中国科学技术大学, 2013.
    [17]
    STECKLER K D, QUINTIERE J G, RINKINEN W J. Flow induced by fire in a compartment[J]. Symposium on Combustion, 1982, 19(1): 913-920.
    [18]
    陈长坤, 姚斌. 室内火灾区域模拟烟气羽流模型的适用性[J]. 燃烧科学与技术, 2008, 14(4): 295-299.
    CHEN Changkun, YAO Bin.Applicability of the plume models for the zone modeling of the smoke in compartment fires[J]. Journal of Combustion Science and Technology, 2008, 14(4): 295-299.
    [19]
    张学魁, 胡冬冬, 李思成, 等. 火灾烟气生成量的实验测量及其工程计算方法[J]. 消防技术与产品信息, 2006(10): 21-26.
    [20]
    易亮. 中庭式建筑中火灾烟气的流动与管理研究[D]. 合肥: 中国科学技术大学, 2005.
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Catalog

    [1]
    HU L H, ZHOU J W, HUO R, et al. Confinement of fire-induced smoke and carbon monoxide transportation by air curtain in channels[J]. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2008,156: 327-334.
    [2]
    ZUKOSKI E E, KUBOTA T, CETEGEN B. Entrainment in fire plumes[J]. Fire Safety Journal, 1981, 3(3): 107-121.
    [3]
    CETEGEN B M, ZUKOSKI E E, KUBOTA T. Entrainment in the near and far field of fire plumes[J]. Combustion Science and Technology, 1984, 39: 305-331.
    [4]
    ZUKOSKI E E. Properties of fire plumes[M]// Combustion Fundamentals of Fire. London: Academic Press, 1995: 101-219.
    [5]
    MCCAFFREY B J. Purely Buoyant Diffusion Flames: Some Experimental Results[R]. Washington D.C. Nation Bureau of Standards, 1979: NBSIR 79-1910.
    [6]
    MCCAFFREY B J. Momentum implications for buoyant diffusion flames[J]. Combustion & Flame, 1983, 52(2): 149-167.
    [7]
    HESKESTAD G. Dynamics of the fire plume[J]. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences, 1998, 356(1748): 2815-2833.
    [8]
    HINKLEY P L, WRAIGHT H G H, THEOBALD C R. The contribution of flames under ceilings to fire spread in compartments[J]. Fire Safety Journal, 1984, 7(3): 227-242.
    [9]
    王浩波, 纪杰, 钟委, 等. 长通道内烟气一维水平蔓延阶段质量卷吸系数的实验研究[J]. 工程力学, 2009, 26(11): 247-251.
    WANG Haobo, JI Jie, ZHONG Wei, et al. Experimental study on air entrainment coefficient during one-dimensional horizontal movement of fire-induced smoke in long channels[J]. Engineering Mechanics, 2009, 26(11): 247-251.
    [10]
    HU L H, PENG W, HUO R. Critical wind velocity for arresting upwind gas and smoke dispersion induced by near-wall fire in a road tunnel[J]. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2008, 150(1): 68-75.
    [11]
    KUNSCH J P. Simple model for control of fire gases in a ventilated tunnel[J]. Fire Safety Journal, 2002, 37(1): 67-81.
    [12]
    纪杰, 霍然, 张英, 等. 长通道内烟气层水平蔓延阶段的质量卷吸速率实验研究[J]. 中国科学技术大学学报, 2009, 39(7): 738-742.
    JI Jie, HUO Ran, ZHANG Ying, et al.Experimental study on the entrainment mass flow rate across the smoke layer interface during horizontal spread in a long channel[J]. Journal of University of Science and Technology of China, 2009, 39(7): 738-742.
    [13]
    纪杰. 地铁站火灾烟气流动及通风控制模式研究[D]. 合肥: 中国科学技术大学, 2008.
    [14]
    张少刚. 地铁列车对区间隧道火灾逆流烟气输运特性影响的研究[D]. 合肥: 中国科学技术大学, 2017.
    [15]
    李垣志,牛国庆,张轩轩.城市公路隧道近火源区长度的研究[J]. 中国安全生产科学技术, 2017, 13(12): 43-51.
    LI Yuanzhi, NIU Guoqing, ZHANG Xuanxuan. Research on length of area near fire source in urban highway tunnel fire[J]. Journal of Safety Science and Technology, 2017, 13(12): 43-51.
    [16]
    周魁斌. 火旋风的燃烧规律及其火焰移动机制研究[D]. 合肥: 中国科学技术大学, 2013.
    [17]
    STECKLER K D, QUINTIERE J G, RINKINEN W J. Flow induced by fire in a compartment[J]. Symposium on Combustion, 1982, 19(1): 913-920.
    [18]
    陈长坤, 姚斌. 室内火灾区域模拟烟气羽流模型的适用性[J]. 燃烧科学与技术, 2008, 14(4): 295-299.
    CHEN Changkun, YAO Bin.Applicability of the plume models for the zone modeling of the smoke in compartment fires[J]. Journal of Combustion Science and Technology, 2008, 14(4): 295-299.
    [19]
    张学魁, 胡冬冬, 李思成, 等. 火灾烟气生成量的实验测量及其工程计算方法[J]. 消防技术与产品信息, 2006(10): 21-26.
    [20]
    易亮. 中庭式建筑中火灾烟气的流动与管理研究[D]. 合肥: 中国科学技术大学, 2005.

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