ISSN 0253-2778

CN 34-1054/N

Open AccessOpen Access JUSTC Earth and Space 14 June 2023

Observation of MLT region winds and tides by the USTC Mengcheng meteor radar

Cite this:
https://doi.org/10.52396/JUSTC-2022-0158
More Information
  • Author Bio:

    Wen Yi is an Associate Research Fellow at the School of Earth and Space Sciences (ESS), University of Science and Technology of China (USTC). He received his Ph.D. degree in Space Physics from USTC in 2018. He was awarded the Excellent Doctoral Dissertation of the Chinese Geophysical Society in 2019. His current research focuses on the solar-terrestrial influences on the mesosphere and lower thermosphere, and remote sensing of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere using atmosphere radars

    Xianghui Xue now serves as a Full Professor at the School of Earth and Space Sciences (ESS), University of Science and Technology of China (USTC). He received his Ph.D. degree from USTC in 2007. He joined the ESS of USTC after graduation. He was supported by the National Science Foundation for Distinguished Young Scholars in 2022. His research has been focusing on the middle and upper atmospheric dynamics and modeling, and atmospheric remote sensing based on the optical and radio technique

  • Corresponding author: E-mail: xuexh@ustc.edu.cn
  • Received Date: 03 November 2022
  • Accepted Date: 16 January 2023
  • Available Online: 14 June 2023
  • The atmospheric winds and waves in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) region are essential for studying the dynamics and climate in the middle and upper atmosphere. The University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) meteor radar located at Mengcheng (33.36°N, 116.49°E) has been operating continuously since April 2014. More than 8 years of observation of mesospheric horizontal winds and tides are presented in this study. In addition, we present an intercomparison among the meteor radar observations and the Navy Global Environmental Model-High Altitude (NAVGEM-HA) analysis results. The meteor number at northern lower midlatitudes suffers from diurnal variations in meteor occurrence, with a high count rate in the local morning and a low rate during local afternoon-to-midnight. The meteor count rates show a clear annual variation, with a maximum in September–October and a minimum in February. The horizontal wind in the MLT region has dominant annual variations at lower midlatitudes, with the eastward wind during summer and the westward wind during winter above 84 km, and the eastward wind during winter and the westward wind during spring below 84 km. The meridional wind is northward during winter and southward during summer. The diurnal amplitude is dominant, followed by the semidiurnal tides at lower midlatitudes. The zonal and meridional diurnal tides show enhancements during spring (March) with amplitudes that can reach up to 40 m/s and 30 m/s and during autumn (September) with amplitudes that can reach up to 30 m/s and 25 m/s, respectively. The seasonal variations in diurnal tidal amplitude basically show characteristics that are strong during the equinox and weak during the solstice. The zonal and meridional semidiurnal tides are maximized during spring (April) and autumn (September) above 90 km.
    Schematic diagram of a backward scatter geometry for the Mengcheng meteor radar.
    The atmospheric winds and waves in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) region are essential for studying the dynamics and climate in the middle and upper atmosphere. The University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) meteor radar located at Mengcheng (33.36°N, 116.49°E) has been operating continuously since April 2014. More than 8 years of observation of mesospheric horizontal winds and tides are presented in this study. In addition, we present an intercomparison among the meteor radar observations and the Navy Global Environmental Model-High Altitude (NAVGEM-HA) analysis results. The meteor number at northern lower midlatitudes suffers from diurnal variations in meteor occurrence, with a high count rate in the local morning and a low rate during local afternoon-to-midnight. The meteor count rates show a clear annual variation, with a maximum in September–October and a minimum in February. The horizontal wind in the MLT region has dominant annual variations at lower midlatitudes, with the eastward wind during summer and the westward wind during winter above 84 km, and the eastward wind during winter and the westward wind during spring below 84 km. The meridional wind is northward during winter and southward during summer. The diurnal amplitude is dominant, followed by the semidiurnal tides at lower midlatitudes. The zonal and meridional diurnal tides show enhancements during spring (March) with amplitudes that can reach up to 40 m/s and 30 m/s and during autumn (September) with amplitudes that can reach up to 30 m/s and 25 m/s, respectively. The seasonal variations in diurnal tidal amplitude basically show characteristics that are strong during the equinox and weak during the solstice. The zonal and meridional semidiurnal tides are maximized during spring (April) and autumn (September) above 90 km.
    • More than 8 years of observation of mesospheric horizontal winds are presented in this study.
    • Seasonal variations of mesospheric diurnal and semidiurnal tides at lower midlatitudes are obtained by the Mengcheng meteor radar.
    • An intercomparison between the mesospheric measurements and NAVGEM-HA analysis results is presented.

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  • 加载中

Catalog

    Figure  1.  Schematic diagram of a backward scatter geometry for the Mengcheng meteor radar. The left bottom shows the five element Yagi antennas using a cross ‘+’ shape arrangement used for reception. The left upper panel shows the horizontal projection of 17191 meteor detections (blue dots) observed by the MCMR on October 16, 2021. The red dot represents the location of MCMR. The red circles represent distances of 100 km, 200 km and 300 km to the MCMR.

    Figure  2.  (a) Diurnal (local time) variation in meteor number observed by MCMR from October 16 to October 20 in 2021. (b) Histogram of the meteor height distribution observed by the MCMR on October 16, 2021. The fitted Gaussian curves are used to estimate the peak height (μ) and standard deviation (σ) of the meteor height distribution. (c) The height-time section of meteor counts with a grid of [2 km, 1 day] observed by the MCMR. The black solid lines represent the peak height (μ) and upper (μ+σ) and lower (μ–σ) widths of the meteor height distribution.

    Figure  3.  Scatterplot of the composite (a) meteor count rate and (b) peak height of the meteor detection distribution as a function of the day of the year. The red and green dashed lines represent the 30-day running mean and median values. The red line represents the harmonic fits consisting of annual, semiannual, terannual, and quarterly (periods of 365, 182.5, 121, 91 days) components for the composited peak height. (A1, A2, A3, A4) and (Φ1, Φ2, Φ3, Φ4) represent the amplitudes and phases of the annual, semiannual, terannual, and quarterly components, respectively.

    Figure  4.  (a) Monthly mean zonal (eastward is positive) and (b) meridional (northward is positive) winds from 2014 to 2022 observed by the MCMR between altitudes of 76 and 100 km. Contour plot of the Lomb-Scargle (LS) periodogram spectra corresponding to the daily mean zonal and meridional winds corresponding to the right column; the LS periodogram amplitudes are above the 95% confidence level.

    Figure  5.  Composite of monthly mean (a) zonal and (c) meridional winds from 2014 to 2022 observed by the Mengcheng meteor radar compared to the NAVGEM-HA derived monthly (b) zonal and (d) meridional winds. (e, f) Comparison of monthly mean SABER temperatures and NAVGEM-HA derived temperatures over the MCMR.

    Figure  6.  Lomb-Scargle periodogram of the zonal (a) and meridional (b) hourly winds at 90 km altitude measured by the Mengcheng meteor radar for the period 2014 to 2022. Annotations show peaks corresponding to 24-, 12- and 8-hour solar tides, as well as the 12.42-hour lunar tide and quasi-2-day planetary waves. The dashed lines show the 95% confidence level. Hourly mean zonal (left column) and meridional (right column) wind composite for 21-day intervals centered on (second row) spring equinox, (third row) summer solstice, (fourth row) autumn equinox and (fifth row) winter solstice in 2016.

    Figure  7.  Composite of zonal and meridional diurnal tidal (DT) amplitude (two upper rows) and phase (two lower rows) estimated by using the hourly wind measurements from 2014 to 2022 observed by the Mengcheng meteor radar (left column). The right column shows the zonal and meridional DT amplitude and phase estimated by the NAVGEM-HA results.

    Figure  8.  Same as Fig. 7 but for semidiurnal tidal (SDT) amplitude and phase components.

    Figure  9.  Composite of zonal and meridional terdiurnal tidal (TDT) amplitude (upper row) and phase (lower row) estimated using the hourly wind measurements from 2014 to 2022 observed by the Mengcheng meteor radar.

    [1]
    Fritts D C, Alexander J M. Gravity wave dynamics and effects in the middle atmosphere. Reviews of Geophysics, 2003, 41 (1): 1003. doi: 10.1029/2001rg000106
    [2]
    Frobes J M, Garrett H B. Theoretical studies of atmospheric tides. Reviews of Geophysics and Space Physics, 1979, 17 (8): 1951–1981. doi: 10.1029/rg017i008p01951
    [3]
    Hocking W K, Fuller B, Vandepeer B. Real-time determination of meteor-related parameters utilizing modern digital technology. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 2001, 63: 155–169. doi: 10.1016/S1364-6826(00)00138-3
    [4]
    Holdsworth D A, Reid I M, Cervera M A. Buckland Park all-sky interferometric meteor radar. Radio Science, 2004, 39: RS5009. doi: 10.1029/2003RS003014
    [5]
    Ma Z, Gong Y, Zhang S, et al. Study of mean wind variations and gravity wave forcing via a meteor radar chain and comparison with HWM-07 results. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 2018, 123 (17): 9488–9501. doi: 10.1029/2018jd028799
    [6]
    Stober G, Kuchar A, Pokhotelov D, et al. Interhemispheric differences of mesosphere–lower thermosphere winds and tides investigated from three whole-atmosphere models and meteor radar observations. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 2021, 21 (18): 13855–13902. doi: 10.5194/acp-21-13855-2021
    [7]
    Zhou B Z, Xue X H, Yi W, et al. A comparison of MLT wind between meteor radar chain and SD-WACCM results. Earth and Planetary Physics, 2022, 6 (5): 451–464. doi: 10.26464/epp2022040
    [8]
    Yu Y, Wan W, Ning B, et al. Tidal wind mapping from observations of a meteor radar chain in December 2011. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 2013, 118 (5): 2321–2332. doi: 10.1029/2012JA017976
    [9]
    Stober G, Janches D, Matthias V, et al. Seasonal evolution of winds, atmospheric tides, and Reynolds stress components in the Southern Hemisphere mesosphere–lower thermosphere in 2019. Annales Geophysicae, 2021, 39 (1): 1–29. doi: 10.5194/angeo-39-1-2021
    [10]
    Wang J C, Palo S E, Forbes J M, et al. Unusual quasi 10-day planetary wave activity and the ionospheric response during the 2019 Southern Hemisphere sudden stratospheric warming. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 2021, 126 (6): e2021JA029286. doi: 10.1029/2021ja029286
    [11]
    Wang J, Yi W, Chen T, et al. Quasi-6-day waves in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere region and their possible coupling with the QBO and solar 27-day rotation. Earth and Planetary Physics, 2020, 4 (3): 285–295. doi: 10.26464/epp2020024
    [12]
    Gu S Y, Lei J, Dou X, et al. The modulation of the quasi-two-day wave on total electron content as revealed by BeiDou GEO and meteor radar observations over central China. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 2017, 122 (10): 10651–10657. doi: 10.1002/2017ja024349
    [13]
    Holdsworth D A, Morris R J, Murphy D J, et al. Antarctic mesospheric temperature estimation using the Davis mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere radar. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 2006, 111: D05108. doi: 10.1029/2005JD006589
    [14]
    Hocking W K, Singer W, Bremer J, et al. Meteor radar temperatures at multiple sites derived with SKiYMET radars and compared to OH, rocket and lidar measurements. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 2004, 66: 585–593. doi: 10.1016/j.jastp.2004.01.011
    [15]
    Hall C M, Aso T, Tsutsumi M, et al. Neutral air temperatures at 90 km and 70°N and 78°N. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 2006, 111: D14105. doi: 10.1029/2005JD006794
    [16]
    Yi W, Xue X, Chen J, et al. Estimation of mesopause temperatures at low latitudes using the Kunming meteor radar. Radio Science, 2016, 51 (3): 130–141. doi: 10.1002/2015rs005722
    [17]
    Yi W, Xue X, Reid I M, et al. Climatology of interhemispheric mesopause temperatures using the high-latitude and middle-latitude meteor radars. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 2021, 126 (6): e2020JD034301. doi: 10.1029/2020jd034301
    [18]
    Yi W, Xue X, Reid I M, et al. Estimation of mesospheric densities at low latitudes using the Kunming meteor radar together with SABER temperatures. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 2018, 123 (4): 3183–3195. doi: 10.1002/2017ja025059
    [19]
    Yi W, Xue X, Reid I M, et al. Climatology of the mesopause relative density using a global distribution of meteor radars. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 2019, 19 (11): 7567–7581. doi: 10.5194/acp-19-7567-2019
    [20]
    Rees D, Branett J J, Labitske K. COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere: 1986, Part II, Middle Atmosphere Models. Advances in Space Research, 1990, 10 (12): 357–517. doi: 10.1016/0273-1177(90)90405-o
    [21]
    Picone J M, Hedin A E, Drob D P, et al. NRLMSISE-00 empirical model of the atmosphere: Statistical comparisons and scientific issues. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 2002, 107 (A12): 1468. doi: 10.1029/2002JA009430
    [22]
    Drob D P, Emmert J T, Crowley G, et al. An empirical model of the Earth’s horizontal wind fields: HWM07. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 2008, 113: A12204. doi: 10.1029/2008ja013668
    [23]
    Tang Q, Zhou Y, Du Z, et al. A comparison of meteor radar observation over China region with horizontal wind model (HWM14). Atmosphere, 2021, 12 (1): 98. doi: 10.3390/atmos12010098
    [24]
    McCormack J, Hoppel K, Kuhl D, et al. Comparison of mesospheric winds from a high-altitude meteorological analysis system and meteor radar observations during the boreal winters of 2009–2010 and 2012–2013. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 2017, 154: 132–166. doi: 10.1016/j.jastp.2016.12.007
    [25]
    Stober G, Baumgarten K, McCormack J P, et al. Comparative study between ground-based observations and NAVGEM-HA analysis data in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere region. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 2020, 20 (20): 11979–12010. doi: 10.5194/acp-20-11979-2020
    [26]
    Jones J, Webster A R, Hocking W K. An improved interferometer design for use with meteor radars. Radio Science, 1998, 33 (1): 55–65. doi: 10.1029/97rs03050
    [27]
    Reid I M, McIntosh D L, Murphy, D J, et al. Mesospheric radar wind comparisons at high and middle southern latitudes. Earth, Planets and Space, 2018, 70 (1): 84. doi: 10.1186/s40623-018-0861-1
    [28]
    Zeng J, Yi W, Xue X, et al. Comparison between the mesospheric winds observed by two collocated meteor radars at low latitudes. Remote Sensing, 2022, 14 (10): 2354. doi: 10.3390/rs14102354
    [29]
    Singer W, von Zahn U, Weiß J. Diurnal and annual variations of meteor rates at the arctic circle. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 2004, 4: 1355–1363. doi: 10.5194/acpd-4-1-2004
    [30]
    Janches D, Palo S E, Lau E M, et al. Diurnal and seasonal variability of the meteoric flux at the South Pole measured with radars. Geophysical Research Letters, 2004, 31: L20807. doi: 10.1029/2004GL021104
    [31]
    Reid I M, Holdsworth D A, Morris R J, et al. Meteor observations using the Davis mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere radar. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 2006, 111: A05305. doi: 10.1029/2005JA011443
    [32]
    McCormack J P, Lynn Harvey V, Randall C E, et al. Intercomparison of middle atmospheric meteorological analyses for the Northern Hemisphere winter 2009–2010. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 2021, 21 (23): 17577–17605. doi: 10.5194/acp-21-17577-2021
    [33]
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