ISSN 0253-2778

CN 34-1054/N

Open AccessOpen Access JUSTC Earth and Space Sciences 20 April 2022

Sheared E × B flow encountered in space plasma excited from two controllable methods

Funds:  This work is supported by the USTC Research Funds of the Double First-Class Initiative YD3420002002,the Youth Innovation Promotion Association CAS (2020451) and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities.
Cite this:
https://doi.org/10.52396/JUSTC-2021-0228
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  • Author Bio:

    Kexin Huang is currently a graduate student under the tutelage of Associate Professor Yu Liu at the University of Science and Technology of China. Her research interests focus on laboratory experiments on instability processes encountered in ionosphere of Earth

    Yu Liu received his BS degree in Physics from Nanyang Normal University, Nanyang, China, in 2009, and his PhD degree in Plasma Physics from the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC), Hefei, China, in 2015. He is an associate professor with the School of Earth and Space Sciences, USTC. His research interests include the laboratory study of partially ionized plasma physics and their applications to ionospheric research

  • Corresponding author: E-mail: yliu001@ustc.edu.cn
  • Received Date: 27 October 2021
  • Accepted Date: 04 January 2022
  • Available Online: 20 April 2022
  • Sheared   E   ×   B   flow has been frequently observed to excite instability in space plasma. In this study, two methods – the interpenetrating plasma and ring electrode methods – were developed in the Keda Space Plasma EXperiment (KSPEX) device to trigger sheared   E   ×   B   flow. Both methods produce sheared   E   ×   B   flow by generating a radial electric field. The results of the experiment indicated that plasma instabilities in the ion cyclotron range can be excited by these methods. Therefore, the methods reported here are important for research on the mechanism for generating sheared flow-driven plasma instabilities, which may enrich our understanding of geospace physics.

      With the electric field varying along the radial position, the corresponding E×B flow in different strengths yield sheared E×B flow.

    Sheared   E   ×   B   flow has been frequently observed to excite instability in space plasma. In this study, two methods – the interpenetrating plasma and ring electrode methods – were developed in the Keda Space Plasma EXperiment (KSPEX) device to trigger sheared   E   ×   B   flow. Both methods produce sheared   E   ×   B   flow by generating a radial electric field. The results of the experiment indicated that plasma instabilities in the ion cyclotron range can be excited by these methods. Therefore, the methods reported here are important for research on the mechanism for generating sheared flow-driven plasma instabilities, which may enrich our understanding of geospace physics.

    • Sheared plasma flow is one of the most common free energy sources in ionospheric plasma for growing various instabilities which will further yield ionospheric irregularities and affect radio communicating system.
    • The interpenetrating plasma method and ring electrode method have been presented in our work to generate a controllable sheared E×B flow.
    • Plasma wave modes caused by sheared E×B flow are successfully generated which builds foundation for flowing experiments on ionospheric irregularities.

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  • [1]
    Makarevich R A, Crowley G, Azeem I, et al. Auroral E-region as a source region for ionospheric scintillation. Journal of Geophysical Research:Space Physics, 2021, 126 (5): e2021JA029212. doi: 10.1029/2021JA029212
    [2]
    Hysell D L. From instability to irregularities. In: The Dynamical Ionosphere. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 2020: 137-167.
    [3]
    Fejer B G, Kelley M C. Ionospheric irregularities. Reviews of Geophysics, 1980, 18 (2): 401–454. doi: 10.1029/RG018i002p00401
    [4]
    Wernik A W, Secan J A, Fremouw E J. Ionospheric irregularities and scintillation. Advances in Space Research, 2003, 31 (4): 971–981. doi: 10.1016/S0273-1177(02)00795-0
    [5]
    Balsley B B, Ecklund W L. VHF power spectra of the radar aurora. Journal of Geophysical Research, 1972, 77 (25): 4746–4760. doi: 10.1029/JA077i025p04746
    [6]
    Kintner P, D'Angelo N. A transverse Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in a magnetized plasma. Journal of Geophysical Research, 1977, 82 (10): 1628–1630. doi: 10.1029/JA082i010p01628
    [7]
    Pradhan S M, Tiwari R S, Singh B, et al. Ionospheric irregularities plasma instability. Indian Journal of Radio Space Physics, 1972, 1: 218–220.
    [8]
    Liu Y, Shi P, Zhang X, et al. Laboratory plasma devices for space physics investigation. Review of Scientific Instruments, 2021, 92 (7): 071101. doi: 10.1063/5.0021355
    [9]
    Ganguli G, Keskinen M J, Romero H, et al. Coupling of microprocesses and macroprocesses due to velocity shear: An application to the low-altitude ionosphere. Journal of Geophysical Research:Space Physics, 1994, 99 (A5): 8873–8889. doi: 10.1029/93JA03181
    [10]
    Linson L M, Workman J B. Formation of striations in ionospheric plasma clouds. Journal of Geophysical Research, 1970, 75 (16): 3211–3219. doi: 10.1029/JA075i016p03211
    [11]
    Tsuda T, Sato T, Matsushita S. Ionospheric irregularities and the cross-field plasma instability. Journal of Geophysical Research, 1969, 74 (11): 2923–2932. doi: 10.1029/JA074i011p02923
    [12]
    Ganguli G, Lee Y C, Palmadesso P J. Electron–ion hybrid mode due to transverse velocity shear. The Physics of Fluids, 1988, 31 (10): 2753–2756. doi: 10.1063/1.866982
    [13]
    Ganguli G, Lee Y C, Palmadesso P J. Kinetic theory for electrostatic waves due to transverse velocity shears. The Physics of Fluids, 1988, 31 (4): 823–838. doi: 10.1063/1.866818
    [14]
    Nykyri K, Otto A. Plasma transport at the magnetospheric boundary due to reconnection in Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices. Geophysical Research Letters, 2001, 28 (18): 3565–3568. doi: 10.1029/2001GL013239
    [15]
    Johnson J R, Wing S, Delamere P A. Kelvin Helmholtz instability in planetary magnetospheres. Space Science Reviews, 2014, 184 (1-4): 1–31. doi: 10.1007/s11214-014-0085-z
    [16]
    Jassby D L. Transverse velocity shear instabilities within a magnetically confined plasma. The Physics of Fluids, 1972, 15 (9): 1590–1604. doi: 10.1063/1.1694135
    [17]
    Thomas Jr E, Jackson J D, Wallace E A, et al. Observations of low frequency oscillations due to transverse sheared flows. Physics of Plasmas, 2003, 10 (5): 1191–1194. doi: 10.1063/1.1567287
    [18]
    Amatucci W E, Koepke M E, Carroll III J J, et al. Observation of ion-cyclotron turbulence at small values of magnetic-field-aligned current. Geophysical Research Letters, 1994, 21 (15): 1595–1598. doi: 10.1029/94GL00881
    [19]
    Yoshinuma M, Inutake M, Hatakeyama R, et al. Control of radial potential profile and related low-frequency fluctuations in an ECR-produced plasma. Physics Letters A, 1999, 255 (4–6): 301–306. doi: 10.1016/S0375-9601(99)00171-1
    [20]
    D'Angelo N. Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in a fully ionized plasma in a magnetic field. The Physics of Fluids, 1965, 8 (9): 1748–1750. doi: 10.1063/1.1761496
    [21]
    Teodorescu C, Reynolds E W, Koepke M E. Observation of inverse ion-cyclotron damping induced by parallel-velocity shear. Physical Review Letters, 2002, 89 (10): 105001. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.89.105001
    [22]
    Fujita H, Yagura S, Harada T, et al. Observation of potential relaxation instability in a bounded discharge plasma. IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, 1987, 15 (4): 445–451. doi: 10.1109/TPS.1987.4316728
    [23]
    Kaneko T, Odaka Y, Tada E, et al. Generation and control of field-aligned flow velocity shear in a fully ionized collisionless plasma. Review of Scientific Instruments, 2002, 73 (12): 4218–4222. doi: 10.1063/1.1518791
    [24]
    Liu Y, Zhang Z, Lei J, et al. Design and construction of Keda Space Plasma Experiment (KSPEX) for the investigation of the boundary layer processes of ionospheric depletions. Review of Scientific Instruments, 2016, 87 (9): 093504. doi: 10.1063/1.4962406
    [25]
    Kaneko T, Tsunoyama H, Hatakeyama R. Drift-wave instability excited by field-aligned ion flow velocity shear in the absence of electron current. Physical Review Letters, 2003, 90 (12): 125001. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.90.125001
    [26]
    Liu Y, Lei J, Yu P, et al. Laboratory generation of broadband ELF waves by inhomogeneous plasma flow. Geophysical Research Letters, 2017, 44 (4): 1634–1640. doi: 10.1002/2016GL072232
    [27]
    D'Angelo N, Pécseli H L, Petersen P I. The Farley instability: A laboratory test. Journal of Geophysical Research, 1974, 79 (31): 4747–4751. doi: 10.1029/JA079i031p04747
    [28]
    Desjardins T R, Gilmore M. Dynamics of flows, fluctuations, and global instability under electrode biasing in a linear plasma device. Physics of Plasmas, 2016, 23 (5): 055710. doi: 10.1063/1.4948282
  • 加载中

Catalog

    Figure  1.  Schematic of the plasma sources and two types of biasing electrodes applied to generate sheared E × B flow.

    Figure  2.  Mesh 1 and Mesh 2 used to bias two plasma layers.

    Figure  3.  Ring electrode designed to modulate the distribution of plasma potential.

    Figure  4.  (a) Radial profiles of the plasma potential and the electric field with Mesh 1 biased at $120\;\mathrm{ }\mathrm{V}$ and Mesh 2 grounded. The grey shaded area denotes the sheared region. (b) The electric field peak value versus varying biasing voltage on Mesh 1.

    Figure  5.  (a) Radial profiles of the plasma potential and the electric field as the outer rings biased at 10 V and the inner ring biased at $-30\;\mathrm{V}$. The grey shaded area denotes the sheared region. (b) The electric field peak value versus different biasing voltages. The horizontal axis is in the format of “bias on the outer ring / bias on the inner ring” while “$0\;\mathrm{V}$” refers to electrical floating or electrical insulation. The background magnetic field was fixed at $130\;\mathrm{G}$ for all these cases.

    Figure  6.  Radial profiles of the electric field distribution under two different magnetic field strengths.

    Figure  7.  PSD of potential fluctuation versus different biasing voltages on the ring electrodes. The legend is written in the format of “bias on the outer ring / bias on the inner ring” while “$0\;\mathrm{V}$” refers to electrical floating or electrical insulation. The magnetic field strength was fixed at $130\;\mathrm{G}$, and the radial position was fixed at $4\;\mathrm{ }\mathrm{c}\mathrm{m}$.

    [1]
    Makarevich R A, Crowley G, Azeem I, et al. Auroral E-region as a source region for ionospheric scintillation. Journal of Geophysical Research:Space Physics, 2021, 126 (5): e2021JA029212. doi: 10.1029/2021JA029212
    [2]
    Hysell D L. From instability to irregularities. In: The Dynamical Ionosphere. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 2020: 137-167.
    [3]
    Fejer B G, Kelley M C. Ionospheric irregularities. Reviews of Geophysics, 1980, 18 (2): 401–454. doi: 10.1029/RG018i002p00401
    [4]
    Wernik A W, Secan J A, Fremouw E J. Ionospheric irregularities and scintillation. Advances in Space Research, 2003, 31 (4): 971–981. doi: 10.1016/S0273-1177(02)00795-0
    [5]
    Balsley B B, Ecklund W L. VHF power spectra of the radar aurora. Journal of Geophysical Research, 1972, 77 (25): 4746–4760. doi: 10.1029/JA077i025p04746
    [6]
    Kintner P, D'Angelo N. A transverse Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in a magnetized plasma. Journal of Geophysical Research, 1977, 82 (10): 1628–1630. doi: 10.1029/JA082i010p01628
    [7]
    Pradhan S M, Tiwari R S, Singh B, et al. Ionospheric irregularities plasma instability. Indian Journal of Radio Space Physics, 1972, 1: 218–220.
    [8]
    Liu Y, Shi P, Zhang X, et al. Laboratory plasma devices for space physics investigation. Review of Scientific Instruments, 2021, 92 (7): 071101. doi: 10.1063/5.0021355
    [9]
    Ganguli G, Keskinen M J, Romero H, et al. Coupling of microprocesses and macroprocesses due to velocity shear: An application to the low-altitude ionosphere. Journal of Geophysical Research:Space Physics, 1994, 99 (A5): 8873–8889. doi: 10.1029/93JA03181
    [10]
    Linson L M, Workman J B. Formation of striations in ionospheric plasma clouds. Journal of Geophysical Research, 1970, 75 (16): 3211–3219. doi: 10.1029/JA075i016p03211
    [11]
    Tsuda T, Sato T, Matsushita S. Ionospheric irregularities and the cross-field plasma instability. Journal of Geophysical Research, 1969, 74 (11): 2923–2932. doi: 10.1029/JA074i011p02923
    [12]
    Ganguli G, Lee Y C, Palmadesso P J. Electron–ion hybrid mode due to transverse velocity shear. The Physics of Fluids, 1988, 31 (10): 2753–2756. doi: 10.1063/1.866982
    [13]
    Ganguli G, Lee Y C, Palmadesso P J. Kinetic theory for electrostatic waves due to transverse velocity shears. The Physics of Fluids, 1988, 31 (4): 823–838. doi: 10.1063/1.866818
    [14]
    Nykyri K, Otto A. Plasma transport at the magnetospheric boundary due to reconnection in Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices. Geophysical Research Letters, 2001, 28 (18): 3565–3568. doi: 10.1029/2001GL013239
    [15]
    Johnson J R, Wing S, Delamere P A. Kelvin Helmholtz instability in planetary magnetospheres. Space Science Reviews, 2014, 184 (1-4): 1–31. doi: 10.1007/s11214-014-0085-z
    [16]
    Jassby D L. Transverse velocity shear instabilities within a magnetically confined plasma. The Physics of Fluids, 1972, 15 (9): 1590–1604. doi: 10.1063/1.1694135
    [17]
    Thomas Jr E, Jackson J D, Wallace E A, et al. Observations of low frequency oscillations due to transverse sheared flows. Physics of Plasmas, 2003, 10 (5): 1191–1194. doi: 10.1063/1.1567287
    [18]
    Amatucci W E, Koepke M E, Carroll III J J, et al. Observation of ion-cyclotron turbulence at small values of magnetic-field-aligned current. Geophysical Research Letters, 1994, 21 (15): 1595–1598. doi: 10.1029/94GL00881
    [19]
    Yoshinuma M, Inutake M, Hatakeyama R, et al. Control of radial potential profile and related low-frequency fluctuations in an ECR-produced plasma. Physics Letters A, 1999, 255 (4–6): 301–306. doi: 10.1016/S0375-9601(99)00171-1
    [20]
    D'Angelo N. Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in a fully ionized plasma in a magnetic field. The Physics of Fluids, 1965, 8 (9): 1748–1750. doi: 10.1063/1.1761496
    [21]
    Teodorescu C, Reynolds E W, Koepke M E. Observation of inverse ion-cyclotron damping induced by parallel-velocity shear. Physical Review Letters, 2002, 89 (10): 105001. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.89.105001
    [22]
    Fujita H, Yagura S, Harada T, et al. Observation of potential relaxation instability in a bounded discharge plasma. IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, 1987, 15 (4): 445–451. doi: 10.1109/TPS.1987.4316728
    [23]
    Kaneko T, Odaka Y, Tada E, et al. Generation and control of field-aligned flow velocity shear in a fully ionized collisionless plasma. Review of Scientific Instruments, 2002, 73 (12): 4218–4222. doi: 10.1063/1.1518791
    [24]
    Liu Y, Zhang Z, Lei J, et al. Design and construction of Keda Space Plasma Experiment (KSPEX) for the investigation of the boundary layer processes of ionospheric depletions. Review of Scientific Instruments, 2016, 87 (9): 093504. doi: 10.1063/1.4962406
    [25]
    Kaneko T, Tsunoyama H, Hatakeyama R. Drift-wave instability excited by field-aligned ion flow velocity shear in the absence of electron current. Physical Review Letters, 2003, 90 (12): 125001. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.90.125001
    [26]
    Liu Y, Lei J, Yu P, et al. Laboratory generation of broadband ELF waves by inhomogeneous plasma flow. Geophysical Research Letters, 2017, 44 (4): 1634–1640. doi: 10.1002/2016GL072232
    [27]
    D'Angelo N, Pécseli H L, Petersen P I. The Farley instability: A laboratory test. Journal of Geophysical Research, 1974, 79 (31): 4747–4751. doi: 10.1029/JA079i031p04747
    [28]
    Desjardins T R, Gilmore M. Dynamics of flows, fluctuations, and global instability under electrode biasing in a linear plasma device. Physics of Plasmas, 2016, 23 (5): 055710. doi: 10.1063/1.4948282

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